Tag Archives: homicide locations

Crime Data Analytics

Goto ProximityOne .. examining crime incidence and socioeconomic patterns and analyzing small-area and location-based data.

.. what are the crime patterns in neighborhoods or areas of interest? It is challenging to get useful answers to this type of question. Crime incidence data by location/address are often difficult or not possible to obtain. Even where the location-based crime data are available, the data must be geocoded, e.g., assigned a census block code to each address. Separately demographic-economic must be organized to examine contextually with the crime data.

Integrating Crimes by Location & Patterns of Economic Prosperity
– View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Crime Data Analytics. Use the Crime Incidence and Socioeconomic Patterns GIS project and associated datasets to explore relationships between crime and small area demographic-economic characteristics. Follow the steps described below to study patterns and relationships in Kansas City and/or use this framework to develop similar data analytics for other areas.

Framework for a case study. 409 of Missouri’s 4,506 block groups are within the jurisdiction of the Kansas City police department (KCPD) and had one or more crimes in 2014 (latest fully reported year). There were approximately 10,400 crimes recorded by the KCPD in 2014, in the city area spanning four counties. In this section tools and data are used to examine crime patterns in Kansas City, MO. Crime data are included as markers/locations in a GIS project. Crime data are also aggregated to the census block level and examined as summary data (aggregate crimes by census block). Crime data are related to American Community Survey (ACS) 2014 5-year demographic-economic data at the block group geographic level.

To perform these types of analyses, it is important to start with location-based crime data that have been attributed with type of offense (offense code). Ideally, each crime incidence data record includes minimally the offense code and address of the crime. Such location-based crime incidence data have been acquired from the KCPD. These data are used to develop a shapefile that can be included in a GIS project.

Patterns of Crime Incidence in Kansas City, MO
The following graphic shows patterns of crime incidence by census block for the “Plaza Area” within Kansas city. This view shows all types of crimes aggregated to the census block level. Crimes committed where a handgun was involved are shown as black/red circular markers. Click the graphic for a larger view that shows legend and more detail.
– View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Related views (click link to view graphic in new window):
Use the GIS project to develop variations of these views. Optionally add your own data.
Lay of the land: Kansas City city (cross hatched) in context of metro
All crimes as markers in Kansas City in 2014

Patterns of Economic Prosperity & Crime Incidence
The following graphic shows patterns of economic prosperity (median household income $MHI) by block group for the same general area as above. This view illustrates how two types of crimes (burglary blue triangle markers and homicide (red/black square markers) can be examined in context. Click the graphic for a larger view that shows legend and more detail.

– View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Related views (click link to view graphic in new window):
Use the GIS project to develop variations of these views.
View similar to above, without $MHI layer

Data used to analyze patterns of economic prosperity/$MHI are based on the American Community Survey (ACS) 2014 5-year estimates at the block group geographic level. The same scope of subject matter is available for higher level geography. The GIS project/datasets includes many types of demographic-economic subject matter that can be used to display/analyze different socioeconomic patterns.

Using Block Group Geography/Data
Census Block Groups sit in a “mid-range” geography between census blocks and census tracts. All cover the U.S. wall-to-wall and nest together, census blocks being the lowest common denominator for each. Block Groups (BGs) are the smallest geographic area for which annually updated ACS 5-year estimates data are tabulated.

Advantages of using BG geodemographics include the maximum degree of geographic drill-down (using ACS data) … enabling the most micro-perspective of demographics for a neighborhood or part of study area. A disadvantages of using BG estimates is that typically the smaller area estimates have a relatively higher error of estimate.

Crime Incidence and Socioeconomic Patterns GIS Project/Datasets
1. Install the ProximityOne CV XE GIS
… omit this step if CV XE GIS software already installed.
… run the CV XE GIS installer
… take all defaults during installation
2. Download the CISP GIS Project fileset
… requires ProximityOne User Group ID (join now)
… unzip CISP GIS project files to local folder c:\crime
3. Open the kcmo_crimes_2014.gis project
… after completing the above steps, click File>Open>Dialog
… open the file named C:\crime\kcmo_crimes_2014.gis
4. Done .. the start-up view shows the crime patterns.

Weekly Data Analytics Lab Sessions
Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing location-based data and block group demographics and integrating those data into analytical applications.  Learn more about integrating these data with other geography, your data and use of data analytics that apply to your situation.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.