Tag Archives: CVGIS

Relating ZIP Codes to City/Places

.. relating ZIP codes to cities .. 214 ZIP code areas intersect with New York city — what are these ZIP codes, their population and how many are completely within the city? What part of a ZIP code area of interest intersects with what city? Conversely, what ZIP code areas intersect with a city of interest? This section provides data and tools that can be used to answer these types of questions and gain insights into geospatial relationships. See more detailed information in the related full Web section.

The 2010 ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) to City/Place relationship data provide a means to equivalence ZCTAs with Census 2010 cities/places. ZCTAs are geographic areas defined as sets of Census 2010 census blocks closely resembling USPS ZIP codes (lines, not areas). ZCTA boundaries are fixed for the intercensal period 2010 through 2020. Census 2010 vintage city/place areas are likewise defined as sets of Census 2010 census blocks. The ZCTA-City/place relationship data are developed through the use of the intersecting census block geography and associated Census 2010 Summary File 1 demographic data.

ZCTA-Place Relationships
The following graphic shows relationships between two selected ZCTAs (red boundaries) and related cities/places (blue fill pattern) in the Pima/Cochise County, AZ area. Relationships between these geographies are reviewed in examples shown below.

– View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Using the ZCTA-Place Relationship Data
Two examples illustrating how to use the ZCTA-place relationship data are provided below. The examples are interconnected to the GIS project used to develop the map views, interactive table and data file described in this section. Example 1 describes how to use the data for a ZIP code area entirely located within one city/place. Example 2 describes how to use the data for a ZIP code area located in more than one city/place and area not located in any city/place.

ZCTA to Place Relationships: Example 1
In this example, ZCTA 85711, highlighted in red in the graphic shown below, falls wholly within place 77000, outlined in bold black below. As a result, there is only one corresponding record for ZCTA 85711 in the relationship file. The 2010 Census population for this relationship record is 41,251 (POPPT) which is equal to the 2010 Census population for ZCTA 85711 (ZPOP). See more details about this example.

ZCTA to Place Relationships: Example 2
In this example, ZCTA 85630, highlighted below in red in the graphic shown below, contains two places: all of place 62280 and part of place 05770, both are outlined in black below. As a result, there are two corresponding relationship records in the relationship file. For the first relationship record, the total 2010 Census population for ZCTA is 2,819 (ZPOP). See more details about this example.

Using the Interactive Table
Use the full interactive table to examine U.S. national scope ZCTA-city/place relationships. The following graphic illustrates how ZIP code can be displayed/examined for one city — Tucson, AZ. Each row summarizes characteristics of a ZIP code in Tucson. The last row in the graphic shows characteristics of ZIP code 85711 — the same ZIP code reviewed in Example 1 above.

Click graphic for larger view.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Creating & Using Location Shapefiles

.. GIS tools and methods to develop and update location shapefiles .. location shapefiles are essential to most GIS applications. Location shapefiles, or point shapefiles, enable viewing/analyzing locations on a map and attributes of these locations such store or customer ID, street address, city, date updated, value, ZIP code and wide-ranging attributes about the location. This section reviews tools and methods to develop and use location shapefiles. See more detail about topics covered in this section in the related Web page.

Viewing/Analyzing Store Locations in the Dallas, TX Area
The following graphic illustrates how store locations can be shown in context of other geography and associated demographic-economic attributes. This view shows store locations (red markers) in context of Dallas city (blue cross-hatch pattern) and broader metro area. Markers shown in this view are based on a location shapefile created using steps described below. The identify tool is used to click on a location and show attributes in a mini-profile.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

View the locations contextually with thematic patterns by tract or other geography. Combine views of store, customer, agent, competitor and other location shapefiles.
The following view shows patterns of median household income by census tract.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Development of location shapefiles often starts with a list of addresses. Locations are not always address-oriented; they might be geographically dispersed measurement or transaction locations — having no address assigned. In applications reviewed here, locations are organized as rows in a CSV file. Each CSV file contains like-structured attributes for each location. The example used in this section uses store locations located in the Dallas, TX area.

There are two basic methods used to create location shapefiles: 1) geocoding address-data contained in the source data file or 2) using the latitude-longitude of the location included in the source data file record. The focus here is on option 2 — using the latitude-longitude of the location already present in the source data file.

Creating a Location Shapefile
The process of creating a location shapefile uses the CV XE GIS Manage Location Shapefile feature. With CV running, the process is started with File>Tools>ManageLocationShapefile. The following form appears.

.. ManageLocationShapefile feature/operation in ProximityOne CV XE GIS.

CV XE GIS provides other ways to create location shapefiles:
• Tools>AddShapes>Points — click points on the map window canvas.
• Tools>FindAddress — creates a single point shapefile based on specified address.
• Tools>FindAddress (Batch) — creates a point shapefile based on specified file of address records.
See details in User Guide.

Steps to Create a Location Shapefile
The process of creating the shapefile “C:\cvxe\1\locations1pts.shp” can be viewed by clicking the Run button on the form (with CV running). Two input CSV structured files are required:
• data definition file
• source data file

There are two sets of illustration location input files included with the CV installer:
• locations1_dd.csv and locations1.csv (7 locations in Johnson County, KS)
• locations2_dd.csv and locations2.csv (252 locations in Dallas and Houston)
These files are located in the \1 (typically c:\cvxe\1) folder. The marker/location shapefile used in the map shown above was created using the lcoations2 input files.

Data Definition File
The Data Definition (DD) file is an ASCII/text file structured as a CSV file. It may created with any text editor. The DD file is specific to the source data file. But in the case of recurring source data files for different periods the same DD file might apply to many source data files. There are several rules and guidelines for development of the DD file:
• there is one line/record for each field in the source data file.
• each line/record must be structured in an exact form:
.. each line/record is comprised of exactly 4 elements separated by a comma:
.. 1 field name for subject matter item
– must consist of 1 to 10 characters and include no blanks or special characters
.. 2 field type: C for character, N for numeric
.. 3 field length: an integer specifying the maximum with of the field
.. 4 maximum number of decimals for field (value is 0 for character fields)
The DD File must include three final fields:
LATITUDE,n,12,6
LONGITUDE,n,12,6
GEOID,c,15,0
The structure of these three DD file records must be as shown above. The source data file, described below, must have the LATITUDE and LONGITUDE fields populated with accurate values. The GEOID field may populated with either an accurate value of placeholder value like 0.

Example. Data for each store for the default DD file name “C:\cvxe\1\locations1_dd.csv” include the following fields/attributes:
  NAME,C,45,0
STORE,c,15,0
ADDRESS,c,60,0
CITY,c,40,0
LATITUDE,n,12,6
LONGITUDE,n,12,6
GEOID,c,15,0

Optionally create a DD File using the Create DD File button on the form. Clicking this button will create a DD File containing attributes of the dBase file specified in the associated edit box. The DD File name is created from the dBase file name. If the dBase file name is “c:\cvxe\1\locations1pts.dbf”, the DD File will be named “c:\cvxe\1\locations1pts_dd.csv”.

About the GEOID
The GEOID is a 15 character code which defines the Census 2010 census block containing each location. The GEOID is generally assigned by the ManageLocationShapefile operation and is one of the important and distinctive features of this tool. The GEOID is used to uniquely determine, with the GIS application, any of the following: state, county, census tract, block group, or census block.

The GEOID, as used in this section, is the 15 character Census 2010 geocode for the census block. The GEOID value 481130002011012 (see in location profile in map at top of section) is structured as:
state FIPS code: 48 (2 chars)
county FIPS code: 113 (3 chars)
census tract code 000201 (6 chars)
census block code: 1012 (4 chars) (block group code: 1 — first of 4 characters)

About the Source Data File
The Source Data File is an ASCII/text file structured as a CSV file. It is typically developed by exporting/saving an Excel or dBase file in CSV structure. There are several rules and guidelines for development of the source data file:
• fields must be structured and arranged as defined in the DD File.
• character fields must not contain embedded commas.
• final items in record sequence must be:
.. LATITUDE – must have accurate decimal degree value; 6 digit precision suggested.
.. LONGITUDE- must have accurate decimal degree value; 6 digit precision suggested.
.. GEOID – this may be 0, not assigned or the accurately assigned GEOID value.
– optionally create/rewrite the GEOID used in the new shapefile.

Updates; Combining Vintages of Location Attributes
Location based data might update frequently, even daily. The recommended method to add, update and extend the scope of location-based data is to create new address shapefiles corresponding to different vintages or dates covered. The structure of the files must be the same so that they files can be used together or separately. Suppose there is one set of data covering year to date and a second set of data covering the following month. The ManagePointShapefile operation would be run once for each time period. Two shapefiles would be created. These shapefiles may be added to a GIS project and used separately or in combination to view/analyze patterns.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

County 5-Year Trends: Income & Income Inequality

.. tools and data to examine how the U.S. by county household income and income inequality are changing … how is household income changing in counties of interest? What are the trends; what is causing the change? What are the characteristics of income inequality and how is it changing? How might this change impact your living environment and business?

This section provides access to tools and data to examine U.S. by county measures of household income and income inequality between two 5-year periods (2006-10 and 2011-2015). These data can provide insights into how household income and income inequality are changing for one county, a group of counties and the U.S. overall. Use the interactive table to view median household income and measures income inequality for all counties. See more detail about these topics here. Measures of income inequality can be estimates/examined using the Gini Index.

The Gini Index & Measuring Income Inequality
The Gini Index is a dimensionless statistic that can be used as a measure of income inequality. The Gini index varies from 0 to 1, with a 0 indicating perfect equality, where there is a proportional distribution of income. A Gini index of 1 indicates perfect inequality, where one household has all the income and all others have no income.

At the national level, the 2015 Gini index for U.S. was 0.482 (based on 2015 ACS 1-year estimates) was significantly higher than in the 2014 ACS Index of 0.480 (based on 2014 ACS 1-year estimates). This increase suggests that income inequality increased across the country.

Examining Household Income & Income Inequality Patterns & Change
The following two graphics show patterns of the GIni Index by county. The first view is based on the American Community Survey (ACS) 2010 5-year estimates and the second is based on the ACS 2015 5-year estimates. The ACS 2010 estimates are based on survey respondents during the period 2006 through 2010. The ACS 2015 estimates are based on survey respondents during the period 2011 through 2015. One view compared with the other show how patterns of income inequality has changed at the county/regional level between these two 5-year periods.

Following these Income Inequality views are two corresponding views of median household income; using data from ACS 2010 and ACS 2015. Use CV XE GIS software with the GIS project to create and examine alternative views.

Patterns of Income Inequality by County; ACS 2010
The following graphic shows the patterns of the Gini Index by county based on the American Community Survey 2010 5-year estimates (ACS1115). The legend in the lower left shows data intervals and color/pattern assignment

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Patterns of Income Inequality by County; ACS 2015
The following graphic shows the patterns of the Gini Index by county based on the American Community Survey 2015 5-year estimates (ACS1115). The legend in the lower left shows data intervals and color/pattern assignment

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity by County; ACS 2010
The following graphic shows the patterns of median household income ($MHI) by county based on the American Community Survey 2010 5-year estimates (ACS1115). The legend in the lower left shows data intervals and color/pattern assignment

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity by County; ACS 2015
The following graphic shows the patterns of median household income ($MHI) by county based on the American Community Survey 2015 5-year estimates (ACS1115). The legend in the lower left shows data intervals and color/pattern assignment

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Examining County Migration: 2010-2016

.. tools and data to examine U.S. by county migration 2010 to 2016 … is the population moving away or into your counties of interest? What are the trends; what is causing the change? What are the characteristics of the population moving in and out? How might this impact your living environment and business?

The total net international migration among all counties 7/1/2010 – 7/1/2016 was 5,641,260, an annual average of 940,432. The sum of net domestic migration among counties is zero by definition, but domestic migration among counties varies radically by size and direction. This section is focused on U.S. by county migration from 2010 to 2016. Migration is one component of change used to develop population estimates. See more about county population estimates and components of change in this related Web section.

Largest 10 Counties Based on 2016 Population
This table shows how domestic migration varies widely among the most populated counties. Use this interactive table to develop your own custom views for counties of interest.

Patterns of Population Change by County, 2010-2016
– the role and impact of migration
The following graphic shows how counties have gained population (blue and green) and lost population (orange and red) during the period 2010 to 2016. Click graphic for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Examining Population Components of Change
– net migration and natural change
Population change can be examined in terms of components of change. There are three components of change: births, deaths, and migration. The change in the population from births and deaths is often combined and referred to as natural increase or natural change. Populations grow or shrink depending on if they gain people faster than they lose them. Examining a county’s unique combination of natural change and migration provides insights into why its population is changing and how quickly the change is occurring.

Using the Interactive Table
– examining migration by county
Use the interactive table to examine characters of counties by states, metro or peer group. The following graphic illustrates use of the interactive table to view net migration for the Houston metro by county. The net migration button was used to select only the net migration columns, FindCBSA button used to show only counties in this metro and the final step was to sort the resulting table on 2016 population. Click graphic for larger view.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Monthly Local Area Employment Situation: 2017

.. tools & data to examine the local area employment situation .. this update on the monthly and over-the-year (Jan 2016-Jan 2017) change in the local area employment situation shows general improvement. Yet many areas continue to face challenges due to both oil prices, the energy situation and other factors.  This section provides access to interactive data and GIS/mapping tools that enable viewing and analysis of the monthly labor market characteristics and trends by county and metro for the U.S. See the related Web section for more detail. The civilian labor force, employment, unemployment and unemployment rate are estimated monthly with only a two month lag between the reference date and the data access date (e.g., March 2017 data are available in May 2017).

Use our new tools to develop your own LAES U.S. by county time series datasets. Link your data with LAES data. Run the application monthly extending/updating your datasets. Optionally use our 6-month ahead employment situation projection feature. See details

Unemployment Rate by County – January 2017
The following graphic shows the unemployment rate for each county.

— view created using CV XE GIS and associated LAES GIS Project
— click graphic for larger showing legend details.

New with this post are the monthly 2016 monthly data on the labor force, employment, unemployment and unemployment rate. Use the interactive table to view/analyze these data; compare annual over the year change, January 2016 to January 2017.

View Labor Market Characteristics section in the Metropolitan Area Situation & Outlook Reports, providing the same scope of data as in the table below integrated with other data. See example for the Dallas, TX MSA.

The LAES data and this section are updated monthly. The LAES data, and their their extension, are part of the ProximityOne Situation & Outlook database and information system. ProximityOne extends the LAES data in several ways including monthly update projections of the employment situation.

Interactive Analysis
The following graphic shows an illustrative view of the interactive LAES table. In January 2017, 149 counties experienced an unemployment rate of 10% or more. The graphic shows counties experienced highest unemployment rates. Use the table to examine characteristics of counties and metros in regions of interest. Click graphic for larger view.

Metro by County; Integrating Total Population
The following graphic shows an illustrative view of the interactive LAES table focused on the Chicago MSA. By using the query tools, view characteristics of metro component counties for any metro. This view shows Chicago metro counties ranked on January 2017 unemployment rate (only 10 of the 14 metro counties shown in this view). Click graphic for larger view.

The above view shows the total population (latest official estimates) as well as employment characteristics.

More About Population Patterns & Trends
U.S. by county population interactive tables & datasets:
  • Population & Components of Change 2010-2016 – new March 2017.
  • Population Projections to 2060 2010-2060 – updated March 2017.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

America’s Cities: Demographic-Economic Characteristics Annual Update

.. tools and data to interactively examine demographic-economic characteristics of America’s 29,321 cities/places .. understanding demographic-economic characteristics of cities and places is essential for business development, market analysis, planning, economic development, program management and general awareness of patterns and trends. This section provides access to data and tools to examine characteristics of all cities/places in the U.S. This annual update includes data for 29,321 cities/places based on ACS 2015 data.

Accessing the Data; Using Interactive Tables
Each of the four links below opens a new page providing access to U.S. by city/place interactive tables — by type of subject matter. Use tools and usage notes below table to select operations to perform queries, sort and select columns.
General Demographics
Social Characteristics
Economic Characteristics
Housing Characteristics

How the the Tables/Data Can be Used
The following table shows data derived from the Economic Characteristics table. The top 10 cities/places having the highest median household income ($MHI) are shown. The table also shows population, median family income ($MFI) and per capita income ($PCI). The $250,000 value is a cap; the actual value is $250,000 or higher. Use the interactive tables to create similar views for states of interest. Use the button below the table to select/view cities within a selected metro. Compare attributes of cities of interest to a peer group based on population size.

Visual Analysis of City/Place Population Patterns
Use GIS resources to visually examine city/place demographic-economic patterns. The following view shows patterns of population percent change by city in the Charlotte, NC-SC metro area.

… view developed using the CV XE GIS software.
… click map for larger view and details.

Related Data
Cities/Places Main Section
Citie Population Estimates & Trends, 2010-15

More About Using These Data
Using ACS 1-year and 5-year data

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Accessing & Using ZIP Code Demographics

.. tip of the day .. a continuing weekly or more frequent tip on developing, integrating, accessing and using geographic, demographic, economic and statistical data. Join in .. tip of the day posts are added to the Data Analytics Blog on an irregular basis, normally weekly. Follow the blog to receive updates as they occur.

… February 2017 updates .. 5 ways to access/analyze the most recent estimates of median housing value and other subject matter by ZIP Code area .. updates on accessing/downloading/using American Community Survey (ACS1115) 5-year estimates. See more detail in related Web section.

Site analysis (Option 5 below)
– create site analysis profiles from a location/ZIP code.

Contents
Five data access and use options, listed in the links below, are reviewed. Each method illustrates how ZIP code demographic-economic data can be accessed/ analyzed/used in different contexts. The most basic data access/data download is illustrated in Option 3. The following links open new windows that take you to the related section with more detail.
Option 1 – View the data as a thematic pattern map.
Option 2 – View, compare, rank query data in interactive tables.
Option 3 – Access data using API Tools; create datasets.
.. Option 3a – Extended ZIP Code subject matter access.
.. Option 3b – ZIP code urban/rural data access.
.. Option 3c – Additional API ACS data access resources.
Option 4 – View $MHI in structured profile in context of related data.
Option 5 – Site analysis – view circular area profile from a location.

Related ZIP Code Data Access & Use sections
Interactive access to demographics based on an address
Summary of ZIP Code Data Resources & Tools
10 Reasons to use Census Tracts Versus ZIP Codes
Analyzing Census Tract Demographics by ZIP Code Area
ZIP Code to Census Tract Equivalence Table
ZIP Code Urban/Rural Geography & Demographics
Mapping ZIP Code Demograhics
Housing Price Index by 5-digit ZIP Code – time series; annual updates
Housing Price Index by 3-digit ZIP Code – time series; quarterly updates
ZIP Code Business Establishment, Employment & Earnings by industry
ZIP Code Retail Trade Establishment & Sales by industry
ZIP Code Equivalence Tables — ZIP Code to School District

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.