Category Archives: Real Estate

Housing Value Appreciation by 3-Digit ZIP Code: 2015Q3-2016Q3

.. tools, data and methods to examine housing value appreciation from 2015Q3 to 2016Q3 by 3-digit ZIP code based on the Housing Price Index (HPI).  How is the housing value changing in areas of interest?  How does housing value appreciation compare among a set of ZIP codes? Which ZIP code areas have the highest and lowest housing value appreciation in a state, region custom defined areas of interest? The HPI is calculated in part using home sales price information from Fannie Mae- and Freddie Mac-acquired mortgages. The U.S. all transactions HPI rose 5.6 percent from the 3rd quarter of 2015 to the 3rd quarter of 2016. Rank, compare, evaluate quarterly or annual housing value change for the approximate 900 3-digit ZIP code areas using the interactive table.

3-Digit ZIP Codes with Highest Housing Value Appreciation
Derived from the interactive table below this table shows the ten 3-digit ZIP codes having the highest housing value appreciation over the year 2015Q3-2016Q3. The areas are ranked on percent HPI change (rightmost column).

Gaining Insights in Housing Prices, Conditions & Markets
.. data, tools and methods to assess characteristics, patterns & trends
.. weekly Housing Data Analytics Lab sessions

Patterns of Housing Value Change by 3-Digit ZIP Code
The following graphic shows housing value appreciation 2015Q3-2016Q3 by 3-digit ZIP code based on the HPI. Use related GIS tools to zoom-in, assign labels, show in context with other geography.

– view developed using CVGIS and related GIS project.
– Click graphic for larger view and details;

Examining Housing Appreciation by 3-Digit ZIP Code
Use the interactive table below to view/rank/compare the non-seasonally adjusted “all transactions” HPI for the most recent 5 quarters for all 3-digit ZIP codes. The ranking table shows the latest quarterly HPI data and preceding quarters for one year earlier. This table will be updated on February 24, 2017, with 4th quarter 2016 data and related prior quarterly estimates and re-computed quarterly change values (last column).

Using the Interactive Table
The following graphic illustrates use of the HPI by 3-digit ZIP code interactive table. HPI data are shown for the quarterly period 2015Q3 through 2016Q3. The state selection below the table has been used to select only California ZIP codes. The Group1 button below the table has been used to select ZIP codes with a 2016Q3 HPI value of 175 ore more. The table is then sorted on the rightmost column. The resulting view shows that among all California 3-digit ZIPs having an HPI of 175 or more in 2016Q3, ZIP code 948/Richmond CA had the highest housing value appreciation — a 10.6% increase over the year.

Use the interactive table to examine states or ZIP code groups of interest.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

ZIP Codes with Highest & Lowest Economic Prosperity

.. the latest data for ZIP Code Areas show that eleven had a median household income of $250,000 or more during the period 2011-15. More than 20 ZIP code areas had a median housing value of $2,000,000 or more. Contrast these ZIP code areas with higher economic prosperity with the more than 150 ZIP codes that had a median housing value of less than $30,000.  Use the interactive table in this related Web section to see which ZIPs meet these and other criteria.

ZIP Codes with MHI $100,000 or More; Dallas, TX Metro
Analyzing economic prosperity patterns using combined types of small area geography … the following graphic shows ZIP code areas a red markers with the median household income or $100,000 or more in context of median household income by census tract thematic pattern. Click graphic for larger view with more detail. Expand browser window for best quality view. Use CV XE GIS software and associated GIS project to develop variations of this view for your areas of interest. .

– view developed with CV XE GIS software.

This section reviews measures of economic prosperity for all ZIP code areas. These data were released in December 2016. This section updates with new data December 2017. See the list of all ZIP ccdes showing population, housing and economic characteristics in the interactive table shown below. Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare and query ZIP code attributes.

Examining demographic-economic characteristics by ZIP code is important for several reasons. We are familiar with our own ZIP codes as a geographic location. We tend to be interested in our area compared to other areas. ZIP codes provide an easy way to do that. Also, many secondary data resources are tabulated by ZIP code area; some important data are only available by ZIP code. See more about ZIP Code areas.

Resources & Methods to Examine Small Area Demographics
• See related ZIP Code Demographic-Economic Interactive Tables
  .. extended subject matter
• See related Census Tract Code Demographic-Economic Interactive Tables
• Examine ZIP Code Urban/Rural Characteristics
• Examine ZIP Code Business Establishment patterns
• Examine ZIP Code Housing Price Index patterns
• Join us in the weekly Data Analytics Lab Sessions
  .. reviewing applications using these and related data.

ZIP Code Areas with $MHI $100,000 or More
The following graphic shows ZIP code areas as red markers having median household income or $100,000 or more. Click graphic for larger view with more detail. Expand browser window for best quality view. Use CV XE GIS software and associated GIS project to develop variations of this view; integrate other data; select alternative ACS 2015 subject matter.

– view developed with CV XE GIS software. Click graphic for larger view.

ZIP Code Areas with $MHV Less than $30,000
The following graphic shows ZIP code areas as orange markers having median housing value of less than $30,000. Click graphic for larger view with more detail. Expand browser window for best quality view. Use CV XE GIS software and associated GIS project to develop variations of this view; integrate other data; select alternative ACS 2015 subject matter.

– view developed with CV XE GIS software. Click graphic for larger view.

ZIP Code Areas: Population & Economic Prosperity
  — Interactive Table –
Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare, query ZIP codes based on a selection of demographic-economic measures. The following graphic illustrates how the table can be used to examine patterns of the three digit ZIP code area (San Diego) by 5-digit ZIP code. Table operations are used to select ZIP codes in the 921 3-digit area (containing 39 5-digit ZIP codes). These 39 ZIP code are then ranked in descending order on median household income. See results in the table shown below. ZIP code 92145 has the highest $MHI in this group with $228.036.

– click graphic for larger view.

Try it yourself. Use the table to examine a set of ZIP codes on your selected criteria in for a state/area of interest.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

State and Regional Decision-Making Information

Organized on a state-by-state basis, use tools and geographic, demographic and economic data resources in these sections to facilitate planning and analysis. Updated frequently, these sections provide a unique means to access to multi-sourced data to develop insights into patterns, characteristics and trends on wide-ranging issues. Bookmark the related main Web page; keep up-to-date.

Using these Resources
Knowing “where we are” and “how things have changed” are key factors in knowing about the where, when and how of future change — and how that change might impact you. There are many sources of this knowledge. Often the required data do not knit together in an ideal manner. Key data are available for different types of geography, become available at different points in time and are often not the perfect subject matter. These sections provide access to relevant data and a means to consume the data more effectively than might otherwise be possible. Use these data, tools and resources in combination with other data to perform wide-ranging data analytics. See examples.

Select a State/Area

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
D.C.
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Topics for each State — with drill-down to census block
Visual pattern analysis tools … using GIS resources
Digital Map Database
Situation & Outlook
Metropolitan Areas
Congressional Districts
Counties
Cities/Places
Census Tracts
ZIP Code Areas
K-12 Education, Schools & School Districts
Block Groups
Census Blocks

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Metropolitan Area New Residential Construction

New residential construction begins with building permits. Overall U.S. housing starts are approximately 2.5% less than permits issued (22.5% less for multi-family units). Completions are approximately 4% less than starts (7.5% less for multi-family units). During the past year-plus, “residential fixed investment” has been approximately $500 billion and remained steady at 3.1% of real Gross Domestic Product. Our focus here is on data and tools to analyze new authorized residential construction activity by metro — how might changing patterns affect you — in your metros of interest? Where are areas of highest growth by type of units in structure? What is the value of new construction; how is it trending in selected metros? See related Web section for more detail and interactive data access.

Visual Analysis of New Residential Construction by Metro
This view shows the November 2014 total building permits per 1,000 housing units (2013 estimate) by Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA).

View created with CV XE GIS. Click graphic for larger view.

Building permit data (housing units authorized by building permits for new residential construction) are economic leading indicators. Investors and housing developers use these data to examine the characteristics and trends in new residential housing development. Finance and real estate professional and researchers examine building permit patterns to develop strategic insights. Government and policy makers use these data to get a pulse on markets and changing patterns to administer programs and operations. Important strengths of building permits data include very recent/current data. There is a very short time lag between the data accessibility and the reference date (November building permit data are available in December). Geographic coverage and granularity are also strengths with national scope coverage by state, metro, county and city. Seemore about these data below in this section.

Accessing & Using New Authorized Residential Construction Data
Monthly building permits data are part of the Situation & Outlook (S&O) database and information system. Access/analyze these data in context of related geographic, demographic, economic and business data. This section provides no fee access to these data via interactive table, downloadable data and GIS project. Find upcoming release dates using the Calendar and related Find Event tool.

Interactive Data Analysis
Use the interactive table to view, query, rank, compare building permit data by metropolitan area. Data are provided in the interactive table by month for January 2014 forward. Earlier data are not available for the current vintage metropolitan areas.

The following graphic illustrates use of the table. The Year/Month May 2014 is selected. Metros are then ranked in descending order on Total Units. The Houston metro (blue highlighted) had the largest number of new authorized units (5,081) among all MSAs in May 2014. Select other measures of interest to rank/compare metros.


Click graphic for larger view.

Metropolitan Area New Residential Construction GIS Project
Use the U.S. by Metropolitan Area New Authorized Residential Construction GIS project to create thematic pattern views similar to the one shown above. Zoom-in to any metro/region. Add your own data; change colors, labeling, subject matter used for pattern analysis. See details in this related Web section.

New Residential Construction Data in Metro Profiles
Building permit data are updated monthly and are a part of the S&O MetroDynamics Database and Information System. View the MetroDynamics Metro Profiles that show building permits data contextually with other geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Click a metro link in column 2 of the metro interactive table to view a Metro Profile for a metro of interest. The building permits section is populated only for Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Examples: HoustonLos AngelesSan FranciscoAtlanta.

More About These Data
See additional information about these data and their use.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. By academic background an econometrician, he has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data.

Pieds-à-Terres & Interpreting the Vacancy Rate

… the October 26, 2014, New York Times story Pied-à-Neighborhood states “In a three-block stretch of Midtown, from East 56th Street to East 59th Street, between Fifth Avenue and Park Avenue, 57 percent, or 285 of 496 apartments, including co-ops and condos, are vacant at least 10 months a year. From East 59th Street to East 63rd Street, 628 of 1,261 homes, or almost 50 percent, are vacant the majority of the time, according to data from the Census Bureau’s 2012 American Community Survey.” The story reviews use of these data and draws conclusions about homeowner vacancy based on these data. Read the story to get the complete picture.

There are a few issues here that may be worth considering. These issues generalize to other situations involving interpretation of vacancy rates; issues at the core of using decision-making information.

The homeowner vacancy rate is the proportion of the homeowner housing inventory which is vacant for sale. It is computed by dividing the number of vacant units for sale only by the sum of owner-occupied units and vacant units that are for sale only, and then multiplying by 100.

The area “East 56th Street to East 59th Street” between “between Fifth Avenue and Park Avenue” is also Census 2010 block group 360610112021. The area “East 59th Street to East 63rd Street” between “between Fifth Avenue and Park Avenue” is also Census 2010 block group 360610114011 and block group 360610114012. These three contiguous block groups are shown in the map graphic below — highlighted with red hatch pattern.

Three Block Group Study Area

Click graphic for larger view. View created using CV XE GIS.

Interpretation, Conclusions and Alternatives
The statement “The Census Bureau tracks vacancy rates to find out who lives in Manhattan full time.” is only loosely accurate. But accepting it, here are some other issues with the inferences made …

1. Time dimension — the 2012 American Community Survey 5-year estimates (ACS 2012) are estimates centric to 2010, not 2012, and thus 4 years old. Some respondents responded as long ago as 2008. The statistical program reference/title is 2012, but the estimates are not.

2. Estimate Margin of Error — the block group level estimates have a relatively high margin of error. The actual values might be higher or lower by a noteworthy margin.

3. More accurate vacancy rate data from Census 2010? … the Census 2010 vacancy rate data are known to relate to 2010 whereas the ACS 2012 5-year estimates are centric to 2010 but are actually for the survey period from 2008 to 2012. In addition, the Census 2010 data are available at the census block level. Finally, there is no estimation error with the Census 2010 data (since those data are not estimates).

All said and done, using Census 2010 might bolster the argument rather than diminishing it. We would need to dive into an examination of the numbers to find out more.

Building Block Group Demographic Economic Datasets

Small area demographic economic data are essential in many decision-making and analytical applications that focus on neighborhoods, corridors and location-specific markets.  Block groups are the smallest geographic areas for which the Census Bureau tabulates richer demographic economic data.  Covering the U.S. wall-to-wall, these approximate 220,000 areas average 1,200 population. Now, with annually updated block group demographic economic data, there are new possibilities for trend analysis.

Census sourced block group data have been traditionally difficult to access and develop into datasets for follow-on analysis.   The Demographic Economic Data Extraction (DEDE) software can be used extract demographic-economic data from various statistical programs and datasets. This section provides an overview of using the no fee version of DEDE to extract block group level data from Census 2000Census 2010ACS 2010ACS 2011 and ACS 2012.

Benefits
DEDE enables you to setup custom data extraction (geographic code lists and subject matter code lists) that can be re-used. Downloaded data may be saved in Excel an d other popular formats. Use the data with your preferred statistical analysis software. Easily integrate you data into corresponding shapefiles for GIS applications.

DEDE makes use of Application Programming Interface (API) operations that enable downloading data directly from servers. As a result, the data extraction application makes little use of locally stored data. An Internet connection is required for most applications. The batch-oriented application makes use of a nominal user interface. See more about using DEDE.

Start-up View and User Interface

Click graphic for larger view. See pointer in grid at cell showing total population (item B01001_001E from ACS 2012 5 year estimates) of 1,510 for Census 2010 block group 51510200812. See subject matter and GEOID codes in lists at left. These lists were populated by reading the geocodes file and items file shown above the grid. Export data in the grid using FileSaveAs operation.

Illustration Application Area — Alexandria, VA
Alexandria, VA bold boundary, Census 2010 block groups black boundary and Census 2000 BGs red boundary.

Click graphic for larger view and details. In larger view, labels show Census 2010 BG codes. View developed using CV XE GIS. Integrate DEDE extracted data into block group shapefiles, as shown above, to create thematic/pattern maps.

Dataset Selection/Source Statistical Program
Statistical program datasets supported by Level 1 include:
• Census 2000 Summary File 3
• Census 2010 Summary File 1
• ACS 2010 5-year estimates
• ACS 2011 5-year estimates
• ACS 2012 5-year estimates

Getting started now
The Windows-based DEDE software is available at no fee to ProximityOne User Group members. User Group members can run the installer (requires User Group ID) and start using the DEDE tool. Join in a Web meeting to learn more about using DEDE. DEDE operations are covered in the next Using Small Area Demographic-Economic Data.

Use the companion CV XE GIS to create pattern maps and perform related geospatial analyses of DEDE extracts. Use the companion SiteAnalysis API tool to interactively access these same block group data, selecting geography visually (by mouse based on map view) and aggregating block group demographic economic data for study and site location areas.

ProximityOne User Group
Join the ProximityOne User Group to keep up-to-date with new developments relating to metros and component geography decision-making information resources. Receive updates and access to tools and resources available only to members. Use this form to join the User Group. There is no fee.

Support Using these Resources
Learn more about accessing and using demographic-economic data and related analytical tools. Join us in a Decision-Making Information Web session. There is no fee for these one-hour Web sessions. Each informal session is focused on a specific topic. The open structure also provides for Q&A and discussion of application issues of interest to participants.

K-12 Schools: Patterns and Characteristics

Goto ProximityOne   We have just updated the United States K-12 public schools database to include characteristics of each of the more than 104,000 schools.  These data are based on the 2011-12 school year.  This section reviews tools and resources that you can use to access and analyze these data — for one school or as a group — to support decision-making needs.

K-12 public schools as red markers in the 48 contiguous states.
k12schools12

Dimensions of the K-12 public schools universe … of the 104,483 schools in the United States and territories, 100,044 are open. 1,520 opened and 2,194 closed during the previous year. 462 are new, not open, but are scheduled to open within two years. 92,537 schools are regular schools; 2,206 are special education schools. 6,224 schools are charter schools with 2.06 million students.

30.7 million classroom teachers are employed in the schools. The total enrollment is 49.8 million students. 22.8 million participate in Free and Reduced Fee Lunch Program (18.4 million students enrolled in free lunch). 3.47 million students are enrolled in the 12th grade, 3.57 million in 11th grade and 3.78 million in 10th grade. The largest non-virtual school was North Shore Senior High (Galena Park, TX) with 287 teachers and 4,607 enrollment.

Interactive Table
Use this interactive table to query, view, compare, rank schools.  Query by state, school district, county or ZIP code.   Examine characteristics of individual schools using the table.  The following graphic illustrates use of the table showing schools in Los Angeles County, CA (using Find in StCty feature), clicking Enrollment button (to view only enrollment columns) and clicking Students column header cell (to sort on total students).  Values of -2 indicate no data expected (high schools in this example; no enrollment under grade 9).
k12schools_06037

GIS, Mapping, Geospatial Analysis
The ProximityOne K-12 schools shapefile enables viewing school locations on a map.  The map view can be national, as shown above, or zoom into any smaller area such as the neighborhood shown below.  The following view shows schools in the Scottsdale Unified School District, AZ (school districts shown with bold black boundary).  Different styles of markers have been used based on school level.  A query has been placed on the layer to show only regular schools.  The school name is used as label, but any other attribute (such as enrollment in a grade) could be used.  Other layers, such as residential properties sold or for sale could be integrated.  k12schools_scottsdale

School Comparative Analysis Profiles
ProximityOne software/database tools can be used to develop comparative analysis profiles.  Click graphic for larger view.  This profile shows Scottsdale elementary schools (Kiva, Navajo, Pima as shown by markers in above view) in a side-by-side comparative analysis structure.  Settings/selections are made by the user in the left panel and the run button is clicked to generate the display. 
idata_scottsdale_elem

View the full comparative analysis profile spreadsheet (link opens XLS file).

Join us in a DMI Web session where we examine use of these and related decision-making information resources in dynamic, live interactive sessions.