Category Archives: Poverty

School District Demographic Trends: 2010-2015

.. data and tools to examine how school districts of interest are changing … based on total population, the largest 10 school districts in 2015, all experienced an increase in total population over the period 2010-2015. Five of these districts had a decrease in school age population (ages 5-17 years). Four of these districts had a decrease in the number of related children in families ages 5-17 years. See characteristics of districts in this interactive table. See the related Web section for more details.

School Districts with 2015 Population 100,000 or More
More than 600 of the total 13,245 school districts have a total 2015 population of 100,000 or more (red markers).

– view developed with CVGIS software and related GIS project.

Using New 2015 Estimates Released December 2016
– for use in 2017 ESEA Title I Allocations
Analyze annual demographic data for each U.S. school district for the period 2010 through 2015. These data include the Federal official 2015 estimates available for all districts. Developed for use as inputs for the ESEA Title I allocation formula, the data have broader uses of interest to school district demographics stakeholders. Use the interactive table in this section to view, rank, compare, query demographic characteristics of districts of interest.

The annual estimates for each school district include:
• total population
• number of children ages 5 to 17
• number of related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty

Using Interactive Data Tools
Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare, query ZIP codes based on a selection of demographic measures. The following graphics illustrate how the table can be used. Click graphic for larger view.

Total Population — 10 districts with largest change 2010-15
– ranked descending on rightmost column

– click graphic for larger view.

School Age Population — 10 districts with largest change 2010-15
– ranked descending on rightmost column

– click graphic for larger view.

Related Children Ages 5-17 in Poverty
– 10 districts with largest change 2010-15
– ranked descending on rightmost column

– click graphic for larger view.

Try it yourself. Use the table to examine a set of districts on your selected criteria in for a state/area of interest.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Largest School Districts: Demographic-Economic Characteristics

.. examine demographic-economic characteristics for each/all of America’s largest school districts (population 65,000 or more).  Use the interactive table in this related Web section to query, rank compare the approximate 800 districts. Examine district relationships within peer groups using tools below table. Click a link in the table to view detailed characteristics of any district. Data are based on the annually updated American Community Survey (ACS 2013) estimates.

Largest School Districts (population 65,000 or more)

— view developed using CV XE GIS; click graphic for larger view

Using the Interactive Table
Use the interactive table to query, rank compare district characteristics. The following graphic illustrates selecting districts having population 180,000 to 190,000. Select any population range. The 11 districts meeting the criteria are shown in the table. It is easy to see which districts are changing population and by how much. In the actual interactive table, click on a column header to sort on that item.

View Extended Demographic-Economic Profiles
In the interactive table, click the link in the school district row to view an extended demographic-economic profile for the district. The extended demographic-economic profile shows characteristics of the district based on Census 2010, ACS 2012 1-year estimates and ACS 2013 1-year estimates. Similarly structured profiles are available for sub-district geography and county, city and higher level geography. See about these profiles for other types of geographic areas.

The following graphic shows a partial view of the demographic-economic profile available for any district.

Use the interactive table to access profiles for districts of interest. Search for the district partial spelling of name using the Find in Name button below the table; or sort by name and scroll to that district.

This section updates in the fall 2015 with ACS 2014 demographic-economic data.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data.

Children in Poverty by School District

.. in the context of “decision-making information,” this section is about using current estimates of the number of children in poverty by school district for each of the more than 14,000 school districts. This measure/estimate is used as a basis for allocation of Federal funds to school districts under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act., the largest Federal school district funding program. These data have far broader uses, providing insights to economic prosperity among children by school district. See related Web section for more details and use of an interactive table to rank and compare school districts.

Percent School Age Children in Poverty
Phoenix, AZ Area Elementary School Districts


View developed with CV XE GIS software.
Click graphic for larger view with more details; labeled with percent in poverty.

In 2013, 15 percent of all school districts had poverty rates greater than 30 percent for the population of school-age children in families. For the U.S. overall, the number of related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty (10,957,266) was 20.4 percent of the total number of children ages 5 to 17 (53,715,325).

As of December 2014, we have new 2013 school district estimates of the total population, number of grade relevant children ages 5 to 17, and number of grade relevant related children ages 5 to 17 in families in poverty. These data are based on Census Bureau estimates developed annually under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Education.

These data are used as an input to the allocation formula for Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The Title I program distributes funding to school districts based on the number and percentage of low-income children. The U.S. Department of Education will use these 2013 estimates to allocate fiscal year 2015 funds for Title I and other programs to states and school districts for use primarily in the 2015-16 school year.

Percent Children in Poverty by School District, 2013
The following graphic shows the grade relevant children in poverty as a percent of total grade relevant children by school district.

View developed with CV XE GIS software. Click graphic for larger view.

The above view shows all school districts (elementary, secondary and unified). In states such as California and Illinois, where two school districts may cover an intersecting area (e.g, an elementary and a secondary) some poverty incidence might be masked. The larger view shows that districts are shown as three layers (ESD, SSD, USD) — each layer uses the same shapefile with a query placed on type of district selected. With all three layers checked, ESDs are shown above SSDs and above USDs. See these additional views (click links to open map views):
Houston Metro; unified districts layer only; districts labeled with percent children in poverty
Arizona & southwest region; unified districts layer only; districts labeled with percent children in poverty
Arizona & southwest region; all district types; unified districts labeled with percent children in poverty

Interactive Table
The following graphic is a view of the interactive table — click here to use interactive table — showing the largest California school districts based on the number of grade relevant school age children. Note the wide-ranging variation in the rightmost column showing the percent of school age children in poverty.

Click graphic for larger view.

Related Data
2013-14 School District Boundary Files (shapefiles)
ACS 2012 School District Demographic-Economic interactive tables
    General Demographics .. Social Characteristics .. Economic Characteristics .. Housing Characteristics
ACS 2012 Children’s Demographics by School District – school district profiles

Support Using these Resources
Learn more about demographic economic data and related analytical tools. Join us in a Decision-Making Information Web session. There is no fee for these one-hour Web sessions. Each informal session is focused on a specific topic. The open structure also provides for Q&A and discussion of application issues of interest to participants.

Community Decision-Making Information

Community decision-making information, as used here, refers to the set of geographic, demographic and economic data that can be used with tools to assess community needs and develop agendas to advance the welfare of community residents and stakeholders. The geographic hub of the community is a city or place — a place of population concentration.

There are approximately 30,000 incorporated cities or census designated places in the U.S. (about cities/places). The focus here is on those incorporated cities, ones with “city limits” and boundaries and government powers designated by the corresponding state.

The concept of the city being a “hub” remains. Geographically, a community is often broader, sometimes narrower, that its defined corporate limits. The graphic shown below shows the combined Jefferson City, MO city, school district and county. The city boundaries differ from those of the school district, a typical scenario with wide ranging variations across the U.S. Typically, residents of the school district have a sense of community centric to the associated city.

Jefferson City, Missouri

Click graphic for larger view. Counties shown with bold gray boundary (white solid label). Cities appear with green fill pattern (white label). The primary school district is shown with bold blue boundary (yellow label); other school districts have lighter blue boundary. Schools appear as red markers.

Community Decision-Making Information
While the leadership, budget, authorizations and related items differ between the school district, city and county, they share the need for a common set of decision-making information. There is a common set of geographic, demographic, and economic data needed by each entity — and neighborhoods throughout the community.

To assess needs, examine change and plan for the future requires data for several types of geography in and around the community. Frequently updated and longitudinal demographic-economic data are needed for geographies including the city, school district(s), schools, county(s), census tracts, ZIP codes, block groups, census blocks, roads and topological structures. Attributes of broader geographic areas including metropolitan areas, Public Use Microdata Areas, state legislative districts and congressional districts are also essential.

These diverse subject matter for diverse geography can often be most effectively assembled and used in a Geographic Information System (GIS).  The view shown below illustrates use of GIS resources to view the location and attributes of low and moderate income neighborhoods.

Affordable Housing; Low & Moderate Income Neighborhoods
See related document for more information.
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Organized Access to Key Data
The America’s Communities database and information system assembles selected key data for selected types of geography organized around individual communities. As an example, the Missouri Communities Program provides access to frequently Web-based data with ready-to-use GIS resources. These resources are made available to participating cities and counties at no fee. View the Jefferson City, MO community access Web section to examine the scope and content.

Using Community Decision-Making Information
Participants in the Missouri Community Program are automatically enrolled as members in the ProximityOne User Group — open to anyone at no fee. Join now. The combination of these resources provide a powerful base for community decision-making.

Join us in weekly decision-making information Web sessions where we cover selected data access and use topics as well as Q&A relating to use of the community-focused data profiles and resources.  View sessions  and sign-up here.

State & Metro Demographic-Economic Interactive Tables

Goto ProximityOne   New U.S. national scope state and metropolitan area demographic-economic interactive tables are now available.  These tables include approximately 600 subject matter items derived from the American Community Survey 2012 1-year estimates.

The interactive tables are organized into four related sections:
• General Demographics
• Social Characteristics
• Economic Characteristics
• Housing Characteristics

Use the interactive ranking tables to view, query, rank, compare demographic-economic characteristics of the population and housing for states and/or metros of interest.  A scroll box is provided for each section that lists each of the subject matter items available for each area in the table.

Importance of these Data
These data provide “richer” demographic-economic characteristics for national scope states and metros. While Census 2010 provides data similar to those items in the General Demographics section, only ACS 2010, 2011, 2012 sourced data provide details on topics such as income and poverty, labor force and employment, housing value and costs, educational participation and attainment, language spoken at home, among many related items. The approximate 600 items accessible via the tract dataset are supplemented by a wide range of additional subject matter.  ACS 2013 state and metro data become available in September 2014.

Mapping Poverty in America

Goto ProximityOne   The poverty rate is an economic indicator that measures the percentage of people with income below the poverty threshold.  Federal and state governments use these estimates in funding formulas to allocate funds to local communities. Local communities often use these estimates to identify the number of individuals or families eligible for various programs.

This post reviews use of a U.S. national scope GIS application that can be used to view patterns of poverty incidence by census tract. The GIS project may be downloaded and used by members of the ProximityOne User Group.  The following graphic illustrates use of the GIS project using the CV XE GIS software to show patterns of poverty incidence by census tract in the Houston, Texas area.  School districts (2011-12 school year) are shown with bold black boundaries and labeled with district name.  Click graphic for a larger view.

Houston Area Patterns of Poverty by Census Tract/School District
poverty_hstn1

See related views: Kansas CityLos AngelesPhoenix

The legend to left of map shows percent population in poverty: intervals and color assignment.  The identify tool is used to display a mini-profile of a census tract (see pointer).  The mini-profile, inset in right section of map, shows attributes of this census tract (tract 310100 located in county 201 of state 48). Selected demographic attributes are based on the 2012 American Community Survey  5-year estimates (ACS0812):
• Population — total population (d001)
• Pop0_5 — population under age 5 (d004)
• Pop18up — population 18 years and over (d018)
• PctPov — percent population with income below poverty level  (e128)
• PctPov0_18 — percent population under 18 years (e129)
• PctPovr0_18 — percent related population under 18 years (e130)
• PctPovr0_5 — percent related population under age 5 (e131)
• PctPovr5_17 — percent related population 5 to 17 years (e132)
• PctPov18up — percent population 18 years and over in poverty (e133)

The thematic pattern shown in the map view above is based on the PctPov item.  Users of the GIS project may use other items to show different patterns/types of poverty incidence.

Associated Interactive Analysis Table
The census tract demographic items are taken from the datasets used in the associated interactive analysis tables.  Use these tables to interactively view, query, compare, rank demographic-economic items.  The “d” items shown in list of items above are taken from the General Demographics table.  The “e” items are taken from the Economic Characteristics table.

Measuring Poverty Status
Poverty status is determined by comparing annual income to a set of dollar values called poverty thresholds that vary by family size, the number of related children, and the age of the householder. If a family’s before-tax money income is less than the dollar value of the corresponding threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be in poverty. For people not living in families, poverty status is determined by comparing the individual’s income to a poverty threshold for one adult.

Poverty thresholds are updated annually to allow for changes in the cost of living using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). They do not vary geographically.  The ACS is a continuous survey, and people respond throughout the year. Since income is reported for the previous 12 months, the appropriate poverty threshold for each family is determined by multiplying the base-year poverty threshold (1982) by the average of monthly CPI values for the 12 months preceding the survey month.

Join the User Group; there is no fee
Join the User Group … download and use the Mapping Poverty in America GIS project.  Sign-up here.

Kansas City Area
poverty_kc1

Los Angeles Area
poverty_la1

Phoenix Area
poverty_phx1