Category Archives: American Community Survey

Patterns of Income in America’s Largest Cities

The retreat in personal and household income resulting from the pandemic will be historic and substantial. How long term? Which cities of what size and location will be affected the most? We start to study patterns and trends as new data become available in the next several weeks.

America’s largest 629 cities accounted for a group population of 121,228,560, or 37.1%, of the total U.S. population (327,167,434) in 2018. All of these cities are in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). With contiguous cities and places, these urban areas account for more than 80% of the U.S. population. These cities, each with 65,000 population or more, are shown as markers in the thematic pattern view below. See more about cities/places and city/place 2010-2018 demographic trends.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity: America’s Largest Cities
– cities with 2018 population 65,000+ shown as markers
– markers show level of 2018 median household income
– data used to develop this veiw were extracted using GeoFinder.
– click map for larger view; expand browser to full screen for best quality view.

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS software and related GIS project.

Top 25 Largest Cities based on Median Household Income

About America’s Largest Cities & Economic Characteristics
The set of the 629 America’s largest cities is based on data from the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates (ACS 2018). ACS 2018 1-year estimates, by design, provide data only for areas 65,000 population or more. The ACS 2018 data are the only source of income and related economic data for national scope each/all cities/places (29,853) on an annual and more recent basis. These data will update with 2019 estimates in September 2020. ACS-based data reflecting the impact of the pandemic will not be available until September 2021.

Situation & Outlook Web Sessions
Join me in a Situation & Outlook Web Session where we discuss topics relating to measuring and interpreting the where, what, when, how and how much demographic-economic change is occurring and it’s impact.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Neighborhood Median Family Income: Measuring Economic Well-Being

.. Median Family Income ($MFI) and Median Household Income ($MHI) are two measures of economic well-being. Based on the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year (ACS) data, the U.S. 2018 $MFI was estimated to be $76,401 while the $MHI was estimated to be $61,937 .. both in 2018/current dollars. Create insights into patterns of well-being by neighborhood using geospatial analysis. $MFI patterns are illustrated by the following thematic pattern map.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity by Neighborhood/Census Tract
The following view shows patterns of $MFI by census tract for the inner beltway area of Houston/Harris County, TX. Income interval color patterns are shown in the inset legend. Tracts are labeled with $MFI. Click graphic for larger view. Expand browser window for best quality view. Larger view shows tracts labeled with tract code. It is easy to see how west Houston and east Houston areas differ.

– view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS software and related GIS project.
– these $MFI data are based on the 2018 ACS 5-year estimates.

This section focuses on $MFI but could just as well focus on $MHI and yet other related income measures. $MFI will almost always be greater that $MHI, generally by a large margin. See the U.S. 2018 $MFI and $MHI in context of related demographic-economic measure here. See more about the distinctions/definitions of families and and households below.

The ACS data are a unique source of income and related data at the neighborhood or sub-county level. View more about accessing and using the 2018 ACS 5-year estimates.

Family Definition
A family is a group of two people or more (one of whom is the householder) related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together; all such people (including related subfamily members) are considered as members of one family. The number of families is equal to the number of family households. However, the count of family members differs from the count of family household members because family household members include any non-relatives living in the household.

Related … an unmarried partner, also known as a domestic partner, is specifically defined as a person who shares a close personal relationship with the reference person. … Same-sex unmarried-partner families or households – reference person and unmarried partner are both male or female.

Household Definition
A household consists of all the people who occupy a housing unit. A house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room, is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live with any other persons in the structure and there is direct access from the outside or through a common hall.

A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated people, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit such as partners or roomers, is also counted as a household. The count of households excludes group quarters. There are two major categories of households, “family” and “nonfamily”.

Situation & Outlook Weekly Web Sessions
Join me in a Situation & Outlook web session to discuss more details about demographic-economic estimates and projections.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

116th Congressional Districts & Patterns of Economic Prosperity

.. Congressional District Analysis and Insights .. tools to examine patterns of median household income .. median household income is one measure of economic prosperity. This section reviews patterns of median household income (MHI) by 116th Congressional Districts based on the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates (ACS 2018). View, rank, compare the MHI by congressional district, among related demographic attributes using the interactive table on the main Congressional Districts page.

116th Congressional District Analysis & Insights
.. patterns of household income & economic prosperity:
Based on the ACS 2018 median household income (MHI):
• the MHI among all districts was $60,291
• the U.S. overall MHI was $61,937
As of November 2019:
• the 19 districts with highest MHI have Democrat incumbents
• the 10 districts with the highest Gini Index have Democrat incumbents
• there are 69 Republican incumbent districts above the all districts MHI
• there are 149 Democrat incumbent districts above the all districts MHI
• the MHI of the 236 Democrat incumbent districts is $66,829
• the MHI of the 199 Republican incumbent districts is $56,505
Median household income is only one measure of economic prosperity.
See more at http://proximityone.com/cd.htm.

Patterns of Economic Prosperity 116th Congressional District
The following graphic shows patterns of 2018 median household income by 116th Congressional District. Use GIS tools/data to generate similar views for any state and/or drill-down. Click graphic for larger view with more detail. Expand browser window for best quality view.

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Using the Interactive Table
— view, rank, compare districts based on your criteria.
— example,which districts have the highest median household income?
Use the interactive table to examine incumbency and and demographic characteristics of the 116th Congressional Districts (CDs). The following view illustrates use of the table. This view shows use a query to show the ten CDs having highest 2018 median household income.

Try using the interactive table to existing districts and categories of interest.

Congressional District/State Legislative District Group
Join in .. be a part of the Congressional Districts/State Legislative District (CDSLD) group. Access analytical tools and data. Learn about CDSLD analytics, patterns and trends. Share insights with like-minded stakeholders.

Demographic-Economic Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

U.S. & State Real Median Household Income Trends

.. during the past two years, 2017 and 2018, the real median household income increased by $1,627. Some states experienced a decline in real median household income in the past two years. During the previous two years, 2015 and 2016, the real median household income increased by $3,329. See details in interactive table (opens new page).

Real median household income in the U.S. increased 0.8 percent between the 2017 ACS and 2018 ACS based on the American Community Survey (ACS 2018). The U.S. MHI, based on ACS 2018 (released September 2019), was $61,937. The national MHI has been increasing since 2013. The increase from 2017 is smaller than the prior 3 years, during which MHI increased between 1.8 percent and 3.3 percent annually. This was the second consecutive year that U.S. MHI was higher than 2007.

Household income as used here is the combined gross income of all members of a household, defined as a group of people living together, who are 15 years or older. The median household income is used to examine the economic health of an area or to compare living conditions between geographic regions.

Use the interactive table and related Geographic Information System (GIS) resources to examine income trends and geographic patterns. See details on using GIS project.

Patterns of Real Median Household Income Change; 2016-2018
— change during two calendar years labeled with 2018 real MHI
— click link for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.
– geospatial analyze income characteristics integrated with your data to examine patterns; gain insights.

Median Household Income in the United States: 2005–2018

U.S. & State Median Household Income: Annually 2005–2018 — Interactive Table
The following static graphic illustrates use of the U.S. & State MHI interactive table. This view shows the 10 states/areas ranked on the 2018 real median household income. See pointer, note that D.C. had the highest real 2018 MHI.  

Try it yourself. Use the table to examine different patterns … like which states experienced a decline in a selected year or over a selected period.

Alternative Measures of MHI
There are other ways to measure/estimate MHI. Possibly the most notable alternative is the Census/BLS Current Population Survey (CPS). This topic will be covered in an upcoming blog .. and how ACS and CPS MHI estimates differ. While the CPS can be used to develop state and higher level geography estimates, ACS might be preferred as MHI estimates can also be developed for counties, cities, census tracts and block groups .. and many other political/statistical areas not possible using CPS.

Demographic-Economic Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

American Community Survey 2018: Geography & Access

.. there are 519 core-Based Statistical Areas (metros & micros) included as American Community Survey (ACS) 2018 tabulation areas. 2018 demographic-economic estimates are included for these and many other types of political/statistical areas — the subject of this section. This is the first in a series of posts about accessing, integrating and using the ACS 2018 data. Learn more about effective ways to use these and related data. See the main web section for more detail and access to the interactive table. The release date for the ACS 2018 data is September 26, 2019.

ACS 2018 1-year Tabulation Areas: 519 Core-Based Statistical Areas
— MSAs and MISAs

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.
– geospatial analyze ACS 2018 1 year estimates integrated with your data to examine patterns; gain insights.

The 2018 American Community Survey (ACS 2018 main) is a nationwide survey designed to provide annually updated demographic-economic data for national and sub-national geography. ACS provides a wide range of important data about people and housing for every community across the nation. The results are used by everyone from planners to retailers to homebuilders and issue stakeholders like you. ACS is a primary source of local data for most of the 40 topics it covers, such as income, education, occupation, language and housing.

Determining What Data are Tabulated
The graphics below illustrate 1) the scroll section that lists the types of tabulation areas (summary levels) and 2) use of the interactive table to display a selection of CBSAs/metros (summary level 310).

ACS 2018 1-Year Summary Levels
The scroll section (see in web page) shows the summary level code (left column), part or component if applicable and summary level name.

ACS 2018 1-Year Estimates — Areas Published — Interactive Table
The interactive table (click link to view actual interactive table) enables you to list the geographic areas tabulated. This graphic shows CBSAs (MSAs and MISAs) tabulated. GeoID1 shows the unique tabulation area geocode for an area among all areas. GeoID1 inlcudes the summary level (first 3 characters), followed by state FIPS code where applicable, ‘US’ and finally the geocode for the specific area.

Demographic-Economic Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Examining HMDA/CRA Census Tract Demographics

.. the ability to effectively analyze low, moderate, middle, and upper income population and households by small area geography is important to housing market stakeholders, lenders, investors, cities/neighborhoods and others. Low and moderate income data by block group and census tract are used for compliance, eligibility determination and program performance in many Federal programs and agencies. See the main Web page for more detail.

This section reviews the scope and use of the FFIEC 2019 HMDA/CRA census tract data (released September 2019). Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare selected items from these updated data for any/all tracts. Use GIS tools with these data to map and geospatially analyze these data as illustrated and further described as illustrated here. See more about banking, CRA and LMI tracts and more about these data.

Visual Analysis of Banks in Context Census Tract Demographics
Click graphic for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

– view developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.
– install this GIS tool and related GIS project on your computer to examines patterns, market share and more.

Low & Moderate Income Population by Census Tract
Low, moderate, middle, upper income classification by census tract is based on the median family income of a specific census tract relative to the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or non-MSA area in which the tract is located. The FFIEC data include a “low and moderate income indicator”:
1 – Low — MFI is less than 50% of the MSA/parent area MFI
2 – Moderate — MFI is from 50% to 80% of the MSA/parent area MFI
3 – Middle — MFI is from 80% to 120% of the MSA/parent area MFI
4 – Upper — MFI is 120% or more of the MSA/parent area MFI
0 – NA — MFI is 0 or not available
where MFI is the Median Family Income

Low and moderate income designation is closely associated with implementation of the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) and the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and is a widely used in many other applications as a measure of economic prosperity.

Using the Interactive Table
Use the interactive table to examine individual tracts or sets of tracts as to their low and moderate income status and related demographics. The following view illustrates use of the table. Clicking buttons below table, this sequence of steps was used to obtain this view:
– click ShowAll
– click “Find CBSA; Low & Mod Tracts”
  >this selects tract in CBSA 26420 (Houston) that are low or mod
– click “Status Cols”
The table refreshes to show 470 tracts that are low/mod in this metro.
Finally, click the column header “Tract MFI %Region” to sort in descending order.

View your areas of interest. Start the steps over and use your CBSA code for a metro of interest.

Bankers Analytics Tools Web Sessions
Join me in a Bankers Analytic Tools Lab session (every Wednesday 3:00 pm ET) to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.
Topics:
• mapping and geospatially analyzing your data with FFIEC data
• tract demographic vintages and trends
• issues regarding MSA/MD vintage, change; about the 2018 vintage CBSAs
• defining and using assessment area geography
• examining the community & neighborhoods in context of assessment areas
• using the FDIC bank location/deposits data with FFIEC/ACS demographics
• using the FFIEC/ACS interactive table below
• alternative methods of accessing census tract ACS data

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Using GIS & GeoDemographics

.. join us in the GIS & GeoDemographics self-paced, online course.

Visual representation, maps, of demographic data by geographic area can be exciting and rewarding. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can bring maps alive. Creativity is boundless. The banner at the top of the corresponding Web section presents a static view of a map rendered using GIS. This map shows the Los Angeles area by census tract. For the analyst or stakeholder, it shows something more — the percent Asian citizen voting age population by tract, overlayed with Congressional District boundaries and codes. It shows relationships, patterns. Using the power of GIS, the zoom level, colors, legend, and labeling can all be changed immediately. You, the GIS user, are at once analyst, artist and storyteller. In control of your medium, canvas, you further your benefits from use these software and data by making dynamic presentations in collaborations. Make compelling arguments. Capture your views and blend them with words and charts into documents. Welcome to the world of GIS and geodemographics.

Mapping census block demographics
The graphic shown below illustrates use of GIS software with the TIGER digital map database census block shapefile to show census blocks for two Ohio counties in context of 2018 CBSAs/Metros. Clicking on a census block (see pointer) shows a mini profile for that block.


– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

Using GIS & GeoDemographics .. about the course
Examining geographic-demographic-economic characteristics, patterns and trends … researchers, policymakers, journalists, administrators, students among others. How can you most benefit from using the TIGER geographic data to meet your objectives? These data are available at no cost. Join us in the Using GIS Tools & GeoDemographics online, self-paced course. Learn all aspects of using the Census Bureau TIGER files and related Census-sourced and other Federal statistical data. Augment your professional skills; participants receive all required data, methods and tools. Your personal session is developed and coordinated by Warren Glimpse. You receive the GIS course certificate upon completion. The course may be started at any time and includes requisite Windows-based CV XE GIS software. The course assumes the participant has basic familiarity with a Windows computer, Internet and spreadsheet operations. No GIS related experience is required. Experienced GIS professionals also benefit by learning about the use and nuances of Census-sourced data and integrating these with other data. The structure includes four segments that typically require 2.5 hours each. It is feasible to complete the course in a day or two though we suggest two weeks.

Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with TIGER … integrate/analyze data from American Community Survey (ACS) or the decennial census (Census 2010) (Census 2020) into TIGER files to make thematic maps. Merge data from other statistical programs. Geocode your address-based data and add the geocoded data to a GIS project/map view; examine patterns. View your market/service areas and assess competitive position, unmet opportunities. Learn about procedures and strategies to develop GIS projects that meet your needs. Acquire the tools and data to perform these tasks without spending more — provided as a part of our course.

The course is not just about TIGER and demographic-economic data. It provides a well-rounded framework for how to use GIS. While TIGER is a focus, we review procedures to access and use thousands of public use shapefiles and GIS files that may be useful to you. It provides a well-rounded framework for how to use GIS.

Enroll today …
Click the enrollment button/link (opens new page) to enroll now ($395). We will contact you and provide next step information.   Questions? Call us at (800)364-7656.

Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.