Category Archives: GIS

Examining County Gross Domestic Product

.. what is the annual per capita real-valued output of counties of interest? How is this measure trending? Why is this important? This section reviews tools and data to examine county-level Gross Domestic Product (GDP) trends and patterns. The first ever county-level GDP estimates to be developed as a part of the official U.S. national scope GDP estimates were released in December 2018. The county GDP estimates join the county-level personal income by major source, both now part of the Regional Economic Information System (REIS). See more detail about topics reviewed in this post in the related County GDP web section.

Patterns of Real Per Capita GDP by County
The graphic below shows patterns of per capita real GDP, 2015, by county.

– View developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project.
– create custom views; add your own data, using the GIS project.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by county is a measure of the value of production that occurs within the geographic boundaries of a county. It can be computed as the sum of the value added originating from each of the industries in a county.

Example … use this interactive table to see that 2015 Los Angeles County, CA total real GDP of $656 billion was just slightly larger that than of New York County, NY (Manhattan) at $630 billion. Yet, the total 2015 population of Los Angeles County of 10.1 million is 6 times larger than that of New York County of 1.6 million — see about steps. GDP provides very different size measures, and economic insights, compared to population.

In 2015, real (inflation adjusted) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased in 1,931 counties, decreased in 1,159, and was unchanged in 23. Real GDP ranged from $4.6 million in Loving County, TX to $656.0 billion in Los Angeles County, CA.

This post is focused on U.S. national scope county level estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually 2012 through 2015. This marks the first time county level GDP estimates have been developed, a part of the Regional Economic Information System (REIS). Use the interactive table to rank, compare, query counties based on per capita GDP, current GDP, real GDP by type of industry. Use the related GIS project to develop thematic map views such as the one shown below. See more about these data.

Current Annual Estimates & Projections
ProximityOne uses these and related data to develop and analyze annual Situation & Outlook demographic-economic estimates and projections. GDP items included in the table below are included in the “annual 5-year” projections as shown in the schedule of release dates; next release April 18, 2019 and quarterly.

Examining County GDP Using GIS Tools
Use the County REIS GIS project. Make your own maps; select different item to map; modify colors, labels. Zoom in views of selected states shown below. Graphics open in a new page; expand browser window for best view. Patterns: see highlighted layer in legend to left of map; MSAs bold brown boundaries with white shortname label
counties labeled with name and 2015 per capita real GDP
.. Arizona .. Alabama .. California .. Colorado .. Iowa .. Georgia .. Kansas .. Missouri
.. New York .. Nevada .. North Carolina .. South Carolina .. Nevada .. Texas .. Utah .. Vermont

Using the County GDP Interactive Table
The graphic below illustrates use of the interactive table. Tools below the table have been used to view only per capita real GDP for all sectors (total sources) and for county with total population between 50,000 and 60,000. Counties were then ranked on 2015 per capita real GDP (rightmost column).

– click graphic for larger view.

Using County GDP: Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

State of the States: 2018 Population & Components of Change

.. Welcome to 2019 .. how the U.S., states and world population are changing … the Census Bureau estimates the U.S. population is 328,231,337 as of January 1, 2019. This represents an increase of 2,013,241, or 0.62 percent, from New Year’s Day 2018 (326,218,096). The population as of Census Day (April 1) 2010, was 308,745,538 and has grown by 19,485,799, or 6.31 percent.

This section updates January 2020, with corresponding 2019 updates and additional details. Follow (click follow button at upper right) to receive updates on this and geographic, demographic and economic change with drill-down to the street intersection level.

In January 2019, the U.S. is expected to experience one birth every 8 seconds and one death every 11 seconds. Meanwhile, net international migration is expected to add one person to the U.S. population every 29 seconds. The combination of births, deaths and net international migration will increase the U.S. population by one person every 19 seconds … one net international migrant every 34 seconds.

The world population on January 1, 2019 is estimated to be 7,541,221,651. The world has experienced a population increase of 96,777,770, or 1.3 percent, from New Year’s Day 2018 (population 7,444,443,881). During January 2019, 4.8 births and 1.9 deaths are expected worldwide every second.

Patterns of Population Change by State, 2010-2018
The following graphic shows patterns of percent population change from 2010 to 2018. Use the associated GIS project to examine different years or subject matter items. Click graphic for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

How the U.S. Population is Changing
The following graphic shows how the population of the U.S. has changed from 2010 to 2018 and how the population might change 2019 through 2020. Click graphic for larger view; opens in new page. The population is as of July 1 for each year. The components of change (birth, deaths and migration) are for the period July 1 through June 30 for that year.

Population for each year is computed by the population identity equation:
  P[t]=P[t-1] + B[t,t-1] -D[t,t-1] + M[t,t-1]
Viewing the larger image, see how each of the components of change are impacting the total population and population change.
… see more detail about these data for the U.S. and by state at http://proximityone.com/states2018.htm.

More About Population Trends, Patterns and Characteristics
See more about how population dynamics; use the interactive tables in these sections:
  • School Districts — http://proximityone.com/sdtrends.htm
  • Cities — http://proximityone.com/places2017.htm
  • Counties — http://proximityone.com/countytrends2017.htm
  • Metros — http://proximityone.com/metros.htm
  • States — http://proximityone.com/states2018.htm

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Housing Price Index 2017Q3-2018Q3

.. this past week the 3rd quarter 2018 (2018Q3) Housing Price Index (HPI) was released for the U.S., states and metros. As a leading economic indicator, the HPI often gives insights into how the housing market and economy might be changing in the months ahead. The fact that the HPI data are quarterly and become available with a short lag time makes the measure even more valuable. This section provides an update on the HPI 2018Q3 and quarterly data for the past year. See the related Web page for more detailed data and access to the HPI data via interactive table.

Visual Analysis of 2017Q3-2018Q3 HPI Patterns
The following graphic shows housing value appreciation 2017Q3-2018Q3 by metro based on the HPI.

Click graphic for larger view and details. This view developed using CV XE GIS and related GIS project. Members of the ProximityOne User Group (join now, no fee) may used the CV XE GIS software and GIS project to create similar views with different HPI measures. Zoom-in. Add labels. Add other geography/data. Create views/graphics for reports and stories.

The Larger Picture
The HPI is calculated using home sales price information from Fannie Mae- and Freddie Mac-acquired mortgages. By itself, the HPI provides limited insights into the broader picture of “the why” and “how otherwise” states and metros are changing. The Situation & Outlook Metro Profiles provide an integrated view of the HPI measure in combination with other economic, demographic and business activity measure. View the HPI integrated with other subject matter … choose a metro. Metro Profiles are updated continuously and are available for each of the metropolitan area.

HPI Interactive Table
Use the HPI interactive table to view/rank/compare the non-seasonally adjusted “all transactions” HPI for the most recent 5 quarters for all Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), states and the U.S. The graphic shown below illustrates use of the interactive table to rank all metros in descending order on the percent change over the past year.

Updates & Related Measures
Quarterly HPI measures are used to updated the interactive table, GIS project and Metro Profiles. HPI by county, ZIP Code and census tract are updated annually. The 2018 county, ZIP Code and census tract HPI data are scheduled for release in February 2019.

Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Block Group Demographic Data Analytics

.. use tools described here to access block group data from ACS 2016 (or ACS2017 in December 2018) using a no cost, menu driven tool accessing the data via API. Select from any of the summary statistic data. Save results as an Excel file or shapefile. Add the shapefile to a GIS project and create unlimited thematic pattern views. Add your own data. Join us in a Data Analytics Web session where use of the tool with the ACS 2017 data is reviewed.

See related Web section for more details.
– examine neighborhoods, market areas and sales territories.
– assess demographics of health service areas.
– create maps for visual/geospatial analysis of locations & demographics.

Illustration of Block Group Thematic Pattern Map – make for any area

– click graphic to view larger view
– pointer (top right) shows location of Amazon HQ2

Topics in this how-to guide (links open new sections/pages)
• 01 Objective Thematic Pattern Map View
• 02 Install the CV XE GIS software
• 03 Access/Download the Block Group Demographic-Economic Data
• 04 Download the State by Block Group Shapefile
• 05 Merge Extracted Data (from 03) into Shapefile (04)
• 06 Add Shapefile to the GIS Project; Set Intervals
• 07 Viewing Profile for Selected Block Group
• 08 BG Demographics Spreadsheet
• 09 Block Group Demographics GIS Project
• 10 Why Block Group Demographics are Important

Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

How the New York Metro is Changing

.. or more precisely, how the New York Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is changing. As of Census 2010 the New York MSA (officially the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSA) consisted of 20 counties. With the new OMB metropolitan statistical areas defined as of February 2013, the New York MSA became 22 counties, absorbing the Poughkeepsie, NY MSA two counties (Dutchess and Orange). The Poughkeepie MSA was removed from the official MSAs. The delineation remained that way until the new September 2018 delineations when the Census 2010 delineation was restored. Now, the Poughkeepsie, NY MSA exists as a 2 county area and the New York MSA exists as a 20 county area (both as they existed geographically in Census 2010).

These metro-county relationships are shown in the graphic presented below. The Poughkeepsie, NY MSA is shown with the blue cross-hatch to the north and the New York MSA is shown with the salmon color pattern.

– view developed using the CV XE GIS software and related GIS project.
– see the related New York Metro Situation & Outlook report.

What Difference Does it Make?
A lot! First, during the interim period 2013-2018, the Poughkeepsie, NY MSA lost the metropolitan area identity/status as conferred by the OMB delineations. It might have been omitted from size class market development and research analyses. Related, that metro was not included as a tabulation or estimation area of MSAs by Federal statistical agencies. An example of the impact is that the official demographic estimates for the Poughkeepsie, NY MSA developed by the Census Bureau were not tabulated as such and omitted from various statistical reports. Also, the removal of designation and now adding the designation back, creates a hiccup in the time series — affecting both the Poughkeepsie NY MSA and the New York MSA.

Detailed Demographic Profiles for New York MSA and Poughkeepsie, NY MSA
.. click link to view profile.

New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSA
  Bergen County, NJ (34003)
  Essex County, NJ (34013)
  Hudson County, NJ (34017)
  Hunterdon County, NJ (34019)
  Middlesex County, NJ (34023)
  Monmouth County, NJ (34025)
  Morris County, NJ (34027)
  Ocean County, NJ (34029)
  Passaic County, NJ (34031)
  Somerset County, NJ (34035)
  Sussex County, NJ (34037)
  Union County, NJ (34039)
  Bronx County, NY (36005)
  Kings County, NY (36047)
  Nassau County, NY (36059)
  New York County, NY (36061)
  Putnam County, NY (36079)
  Queens County, NY (36081)
  Richmond County, NY (36085)
  Rockland County, NY (36087)
  Suffolk County, NY (36103)
  Westchester County, NY (36119)
  Pike County, PA (42103)

Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY (CBSA 39100)
  Dutchess County, NY (36027)
  Orange County, NY (36071)

Looking Forward
The September 2018 CBSA delineations define counties that will be used for Census 2020 (likely, there could be yet further changes) — 384 MSAs in the U.S. In the cases of the New York MSA and the Poughkeepsie, NY MSA, it appears that the geography (component counties) used for Census 2010 will be the same as for Census 2020. Going forward, ProximityOne estimates and projections will use the most current vintage of CBSAs.

Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Examining State-to-State Geographic Mobility

.. tools, resources and insights to examine U.S. by state migration 2011-2017 and migration flows in 2016 .. this post is an excerpt from the more detailed Web page http://proximityone.com/statemigration.htm.

In examining future demographic trends, the most challenging component of change to project (develop data values into the future) is migration. Migration, comprised net domestic and net international migration, is a function of many factors whose cause and effect behavior can change year by year, and geographic area by area. While this section is focused on states, the same scope of data is available to the county and sub-county levels. In this section, U.S. by state migration is examined using two data sources: annual population and components of change model-based estimates (2010-2017 model-based estimates) and annual American Community Survey estimates (ACS 2016 estimates). While these Census Bureau programs are highly related, the migration data/subject matter differ some.

State Net Domestic Migration, 2011-2017
The following graphic shows patterns net domestic migration for the period 2011-2017, based on the model-based estimates. The patterns of migration change, direction and magnitude are immediately evident. Click on the graphic to see a larger view showing more detail. Expand browser to full screen for best quality view. The larger view shows a portion of a mini-profile for Florida. The mini-profile illustrates how these data are comprised … annual net domestic migration estimates and the sum over the years 2011-2017. See the interactive table to view these data, and related components of change, in a tabular, numeric form. Use the GIS project (details here) to create similar views for any state; visual analysis of outmigration for any state showing outmigration by destination state. Label areas as desired. Add other layers. Add your own data.

View created with CV XE GIS. Click graphic for larger view with more detail.

State OutMigration by Destination State
The model-based estimates, reviewed above, do not provide detail on state-to-state migration. Those data are provided by the related ACS 2016 estimates. Note that the ACS 2016 1-year estimates are for the calendar year 2016. From these data we can get the following migration detail … In 2016, there were an estimated 605,018 people who moved from a residence 1 year earlier, in a different state, to Florida. Florida experienced the largest number of movers (inflows) from other states among all states. 60,472 of these movers were from New York. See the interactive table in this section to examine similar characteristics for any state. These data are based on the 2016 ACS 1 year estimates. See about related data.

The American Community Survey (ACS) asks respondents age 1 year and over whether they lived in the same residence 1 year ago. For people who lived in a different residence, the location of their previous residence is collected. The state-to-state migration flows are created from tabulations of the current state (including the District of Columbia) of residence crossed by state of residence 1 year ago.

Movers Within and Between States & Selected Areas During 2016
Use the interactive table to examine state outmigration by destination state. View, compare, query, rank and export data of interest.

Data Analytics Web Sessions
.. is my area urban, rural or …
.. how do census blocks relate to congressional district? redistricting?
.. how can I map census block demographics?
Join me in a Data Analytics Web Session, every Tuesday, where we review access to and use of data, tools and methods relating to GeoStatistical Data Analytics Learning. We review current topical issues and data — and how you can access/use tools/data to meet your needs/interests.

About the Author
Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Census Block, Block Group & Census Tract GeoDemographics

Census tracts, block groups and blocks are the important small area statistical geographic areas for which data from Census 2010 are tabulated. Data for census tracts and block groups are also tabulated annually from the American Community Survey. For example. in December 2018, we will have new “richer demographics” annual estimates centric to each year 2008 through 2015 for Census 2010 tracts and block groups … data such as educational attainment, language spoken, housing and household characteristics,  income characteristics and employment and other demographic-economic attributes.

Largest Population New York City (NYC) Census Blocks
The following graphic shows the NYC Census 2010 census block having the largest Census 2010 population that is not a group quarters population block. The Lincoln Center census block shown in the graphic (red boundary) has 4,067 population and 2,922 housing units.

– click graphic for larger view; view developed using CV XE GIS

This block (36 061 015500 6000) occupies 0.033 square miles. It has a population density of 122,333 (population per square mile). The NYC block with the largest population is on Rikers Island and has a group quarters population of 8,634 and 0 housing units. For Census 2010, there were 350,169 census blocks covering the state of New York; 13,356 census blocks were water blocks. For the State of New York, as of Census 2010 the average census block population was 55 (57 excluding water blocks).

Census 2010 and Census 2020
These geographies have generally stable geographic areas and codes from one decennial census (e.g., Census 2010) to the next (e.g., Census 2020). Many of these areas will change in terms of code and area for Census 2020, though the geographic changes will typically be small or not at all.

Census 2020 block, block group and tract codes and geometry will be available in late 2020. Initial block level demographics will be available in March 2021.

Census 2010 & Current GeoDemographics
These areas cover the U.S. from wall-to-wall and generally non-changing in terms of boundary and geographic code (geocode) until Census 2020. This section provides a summary of new Web pages with more detail about each of these geographies:
census tracts and tract codes .. 73,056 areas
census block groups and block group codes .. 217,740 areas
census blocks and block codes .. 11,078,297 areas

Each of these pages provides an interactive table to view tallies of Census 2010 for each of these small area geographies.

Combining Address Data with Small Area Geography
The address of the Office of the California Secretary of State, located at 1500 11th St, Sacramento, CA 95814, was geocoded using the APIGeocoder and converted into a shapefile for Geographic Information System applications.  The location is shown as a red marker in the map views shown below, illustrating each type of small area geography: tracts. block groups and blocks.

Census Tracts
Tracts are labeled with green tract codes. Address 1500 11th St, Sacramento, CA 95814 is shown by red marker.  The address is in tract 06067001101.

View created using CV XE GIS.

Block Groups
Block groups are labeled with red block group codes.  Tract 06067001101 is comprised of block groups: 060670011011 and 060670011012.  See pointer in map view; the block group within tract boundary.

View created using CV XE GIS.

Zoom-in to Census Block
Blocks are labeled with yellow block codes. The address is located in block 060670011011085.

View created using CV XE GIS.

Further Zoom-in Showing Streets
Streets are labeled with street names. Identify tool is used to show mini-profile for 1500 block of 11th Street.

View created using CV XE GIS.

Is the tract code 11.01 or 001101?
Both. Census tracts within a county are identified by a 4-digit basic code between 0001 and 9999, and may have a 2-digit suffix ranging from .01 to .98; for example, 6059.02. The decimal point separating the 4-digit basic tract code from the 2-digit suffix is shown in Census Bureau printed reports and maps. For geo-referencing, the decimal point is implied and does not appear; the 6-character tract code with lead zeroes is used — a character string with no blanks and all numbers.

Accessing and Using these Geographies & Related Demographics
There are several ways these geographies can be used.
• The geocodes are the “handles” to access demographic-economic statistical data.
• The geographies may be visually, geospatially, related as shapefiles.
.. the Census Bureau makes these shapefiles available for use in user appications.
.. the shapefiles typically do not include demographic-economic data.

Access Census 2010 Census Block (and Block Group/Tract) data:
• P.L. 94-171 Redistricting Data — http://proximityone.com/cen2010_pl94171.htm
• Summary File 1 — http://proximityone.com/cen2010_sf1.htm

Access Census Block Group and Tract richer demographics:
• 2016 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates
  — http://proximityone.com/acs1216.htm
• Access annual counterparts to above section
• Census blocks — http://proximityone.com/cenblk.htm
• Census block groups — http://proximityone.com/blockgroups.htm
• Census tracts — http://proximityone.com/tracts.htm

Alternatively use the Census Bureau APIs or CV XE GIS APIGateway.

Data Analytics Web Sessions
.. is my area urban, rural or …
.. how do census blocks relate to congressional district? redistricting?
.. how can I map census block demographics?
Join me in a Data Analytics Web Session, every Tuesday, where we review access to and use of data, tools and methods relating to GeoStatistical Data Analytics Learning. We review current topical issues and data — and how you can access/use tools/data to meet your needs/interests.

About the Author
Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.