Category Archives: States

Arizona’s Shifting Demographics

.. part of a state-by-state series .. these periodic posts examine how and why the state and its counties changed bwteen 2010 and 2020. Later posts will provide more of a drill-down look at change. Click the Follow link at right to receive new and updated information.

Census 2020 Arizona Demographics
The Arizona July 1, 2020 Census model-based population estimate of 7,421,401 compares to the Census 2020 population count of 7,151,502 people. The difference of -269,899 between the 2020 estimate and the 2020 count can be explained by several factors. First, the estimate is for a point in time that is three months later that the Census. There will be a tendency of the Census Bureau to adjust the Joly 1, 2020 population estimate to conform to the Census 2020 value. The July 1, 2020 estimate will likely be adjusted to reflect this change when the July 1, 2021 estimates are released April/May of 2022.

The 2020 population estimate is determined using a component method. The 2020 population estimate is the sum of the 2019 population estimate (7,291,843 for Arizona) and each of the following for the period July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 …
plus births (AZ 81,451)
less deaths (AZ 66,385)
plus international migration (AZ 9,272)
plus domestic migration (AZ 105,435)
plus an estimation residual (AZ -214)

Any one or a combination of these 6 estimate based values could be wrong, or the Census 2020 value could be wrong. It is likely a combination of all of these factors.

The remainder of this section is based on Census Bureau model-based estimates, released April 26, 2021. See more about these data for all U.S. counties in the Demographics 2060 section where Arizona demographic projections can be examined.

Visualizing Arizona Demographic Change
The following graphic illustrates how Arizona county demographics have changed from 2010 to 2020. The labels show the actual percent change; the color patterns, as shown in the legend, provide a visual thematic pattern view.

Examining the How and Why of Demographic Change
The following table shows a row for the state and each county, providing more detail as to the where, what/how much, how and why demographic change has occurred from 2010 to 2020.


Click graphic for larger view.

Looking Ahead
More geographically detailed data (counties for example) based Census 2020 (August 2021) will reveal much starker percentage differences between the 2020 estimates versus Census results. The ProximityOne annual estimates and projections to 2060 are developed using two basic series (and variation among those (low, base, high): Census 2020 based series and 2020 estimates series. See http://proximityone.com/demographics2060 for details.

Learn more — Join me in the Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Accessing & Using GeoDemographics Web Session where we discuss topics relating to measuring and interpreting the where, what, when, how and how much demographic-economic change is occurring and it’s impact.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for national scope statistical programs and innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Census 2020 – First Results

.. the first results of Census 2020, the apportionment data, were released on April 26, 2021.  Based on the decennial census, the United States total resident population increased from 308,745,538 (2010) to 331,449,281 (2020), a change of 22,703,743 (7.3%). For now, these data should be trusted and assumed accurate.  The apportionment data provide only total population counts at the state level.  More will be revealed about the accuracy of these data when the redistricting data are released in August 2021.

Apportionment of the U.S. House of Representatives
Congressional apportionment is the process of dividing the 435 members, or seats, in the House of Representatives among the 50 states based on the population data from the decennial census. See more about congressional districts and demographic-economic characteristics. See this related web section for detailed information on apportionment. Use the interactive table to view/analyze the Census 2010 and Census 2020 apportionment data. The following view shows patterns of congressional seats based on the decennial census. Labels show the number of seats based on the 2020 Census. Color patterns show the change in seats, 2010 to 2020.

Census 2020: the Process & Challenges
Counting the total population and selected population attributes in a pandemic is not only challenging but not possible.  During 2020, as the data were collected, it seemed good news that more than two-thirds of the potential respondents had completed the questionnaire.  But then the questions set in.  Bureau public announcements frequently made reference to the number or housing units and the number of households (occupied housing units) “accounted for” reaching 90 percent and progressively more.  By observation, using administrative record data, and other methods, housing units can be much more easily counted than the population and population attributes.  Likewise, determining the number households is  easier than determining the population count and characteristics.

The fact that the state population counts were unexpectedly different from the Bureau’s model based estimates is troubling.  We seek more assurance that the count of  population and population characteristics — by location — are as represented by the apportionment data.

Census Bureau 2020 Model-Based Estimates
New Census Bureau sourced U.S. by county model-based population estimates by age/gender/race-origin as of July 1, 2020 will be released by the Bureau in May 2021.  These estimates are independent of Census 2020 and make use of methods used annually throughout the 2010-2020 period.  An upcoming blog will report on ProximityOne’s analysis of these estimates in comparison with the Census 2020 data.

ProximityOne Estimates & Projections to 2060
ProximityOne annual demographic estimates and projections 2010-2060 by county will begin a new update cycle in May 2021.  The schedule is shown here.  

Starting with the May updates, two base projection series will be developed and progressively updated: one controlled to the Census 2020 data and one based on continued use of 2020 model-based estimates. As more information is released from Census 2020. Follow this blog for more information on evolving developments.

Learn more — Join me in the Data Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Accessing & Using GeoDemographics Web Session where we discuss topics relating to measuring and interpreting the where, what, when, how and how much demographic-economic change is occurring and it’s impact.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for national scope statistical programs and innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Housing Value Appreciation

.. U.S. housing prices rose nationwide in August, up 1.5% from the previous month, based on the FHFA Housing Price Index (HPI). Housing prices rose 8.0% from August 2019 to August 2020.

If you purchased a housing unit in 2019Q2 at $260,200 (the ACS 2019 median housing value), the value of the unit in 2020Q2 would be $271,000, an increase of 4.2%. A good deal in this era of low interest rates.

U.S. housing prices posted a strong increase in August .. the 1.5% increase is the largest one-month price increase observed since the start of the HPI measurement in 1991. This large month-over-month gain contributes to an already strong increase in prices over the summer. These price gains can be attributed to the historically low interest rates, rebounding housing demand and continued supply constraints.

The HPI has various limitations as a measure to assess the housing market. One important limitation is that it a measure in isolation; other related demographic-economic measures are not included. This is unlike the American Community Survey (ACS) estimates of the median housing value ($MHV), used as an annual, year-over-year measure of housing value appreciation.

Median Housing Value
The U.S. ACS 1-year estimate of median housing value ($MHV) increased from $229,700 in 2018 to $240,500 in 2019. The ACS 2020 estimate, which will be impacted by the pandemic, will not be available until September 2021. The ProximityOne 2020 estimate of $MHV is $270,500.

Click this API link to view a CSV-like file showing the 2019 median household income and median housing value by state. Join me in a Data Analytics Web Session (see below) to integrate these data into a map view like shown below. Add other data.

Patterns of Median Housing Value by State

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS
– click graphic for larger view

An advantage of using the ACS or ACS-like $MHV data is that this measure is synchronized with other related measures, like total population, total housing units, housing units by tenure and age built and so on. Though a popular measure to assess geographically comparable housing values, the $MHV has many limitations. A key limitation is that few survey responders really know the value of their home. Other limitations have to do with the definition itself and how the data are collected/developed. ACS $MHV measures value of only occupied housing units and excludes houses on 10 or more acres and housing units in multi-unit structures. See more. While there are other Federal sources of $MHV, it remains that the usabilty aspects of the ACS or ACS-like measures are second to none.

Learn more — Join me in the Situation & Outlook Web Sessions
Join me in a Situation & Outlook Web Session where we discuss topics relating to measuring and interpreting the where, what, when, how and how much demographic-economic change is occurring and it’s impact.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for national scope statistical programs and innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Personal Consumption Expenditures by Type & State

.. using Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) measures to monitor/examine the strength of a regional economy and consumer buying trends in that region and compare among regions … PCE estimates released in October 2019, show that state personal consumption expenditures increased 5.1 percent in 2018, an acceleration from the 4.4 percent increase in 2017. The percent change in PCE across all states ranged from 7.3 percent in Utah to 3.6 percent in West Virginia.

In 2018, across all states and D.C., per capita PCE was $42,757. Per capita PCE by state ranged from a high of $55,095 (MA) to a low of $31,083 (MS). Per capita PCE in D.C. $63,151. Use the interactive table to example per capita and total PCE by state for 24 categories annually 2010 to 2018.

Per Capita Personal Consumption Expenditures by Category; U.S. 2018
— how does your situation and areas of interest compare to U.S. overall?
— view, sort, query by state and year in the interactive table

Goods and services purchased by people are personal consumption expenditures (PCE). These data provide insights into the strength of a state economy and consumer buying trends. As a major component of GDP, PCE growth has recently accounted for much of the GDP growth. The data reviewed in this section are developed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA, released each October). ProximityOne develops regional PCE estimates by metro and county. More about PCE.

See related sections:
• State Real Median Household Income
• State Annual Gross Domestic Product by Industry

Per Capita Consumption Expenditures by State, 2018
The following graphic shows patterns of 2018 per capita personal income expenditures (PCE). Intervals show distribution in quintiles, equal number of states per interval. The 2018 U.S. per capita PCE was $42,757. Use CV XE GIS project to examine PCE by types, per cpaita vs total, different years and change. Integrate additional subject matter and types of geography. Click graphic for larger view with details. Expand browser window for bets quality view.

– view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project & datasets.

Using the Interactive Table
— which areas have the highest health care expenditures?
Use the interactive table to examine personal consumption expenditures by type and state annually for the period 2010-2018. The following view illustrates use of the table. This view shows use a query to examine only health care expenditures. The table was then sorted in descending order to show the areas with the highest per capita health care expenditures in 2018.

Try using the interactive table to existing states or categories of interest.

Demographic-Economic Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

American Community Survey 2018: Geography & Access

.. there are 519 core-Based Statistical Areas (metros & micros) included as American Community Survey (ACS) 2018 tabulation areas. 2018 demographic-economic estimates are included for these and many other types of political/statistical areas — the subject of this section. This is the first in a series of posts about accessing, integrating and using the ACS 2018 data. Learn more about effective ways to use these and related data. See the main web section for more detail and access to the interactive table. The release date for the ACS 2018 data is September 26, 2019.

ACS 2018 1-year Tabulation Areas: 519 Core-Based Statistical Areas
— MSAs and MISAs

– view developed using ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.
– geospatial analyze ACS 2018 1 year estimates integrated with your data to examine patterns; gain insights.

The 2018 American Community Survey (ACS 2018 main) is a nationwide survey designed to provide annually updated demographic-economic data for national and sub-national geography. ACS provides a wide range of important data about people and housing for every community across the nation. The results are used by everyone from planners to retailers to homebuilders and issue stakeholders like you. ACS is a primary source of local data for most of the 40 topics it covers, such as income, education, occupation, language and housing.

Determining What Data are Tabulated
The graphics below illustrate 1) the scroll section that lists the types of tabulation areas (summary levels) and 2) use of the interactive table to display a selection of CBSAs/metros (summary level 310).

ACS 2018 1-Year Summary Levels
The scroll section (see in web page) shows the summary level code (left column), part or component if applicable and summary level name.

ACS 2018 1-Year Estimates — Areas Published — Interactive Table
The interactive table (click link to view actual interactive table) enables you to list the geographic areas tabulated. This graphic shows CBSAs (MSAs and MISAs) tabulated. GeoID1 shows the unique tabulation area geocode for an area among all areas. GeoID1 inlcudes the summary level (first 3 characters), followed by state FIPS code where applicable, ‘US’ and finally the geocode for the specific area.

Demographic-Economic Analytics Web Sessions
Join me in a Demographics Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

State of the States: 2018 Population & Components of Change

.. Welcome to 2019 .. how the U.S., states and world population are changing … the Census Bureau estimates the U.S. population is 328,231,337 as of January 1, 2019. This represents an increase of 2,013,241, or 0.62 percent, from New Year’s Day 2018 (326,218,096). The population as of Census Day (April 1) 2010, was 308,745,538 and has grown by 19,485,799, or 6.31 percent.

This section updates January 2020, with corresponding 2019 updates and additional details. Follow (click follow button at upper right) to receive updates on this and geographic, demographic and economic change with drill-down to the street intersection level.

In January 2019, the U.S. is expected to experience one birth every 8 seconds and one death every 11 seconds. Meanwhile, net international migration is expected to add one person to the U.S. population every 29 seconds. The combination of births, deaths and net international migration will increase the U.S. population by one person every 19 seconds … one net international migrant every 34 seconds.

The world population on January 1, 2019 is estimated to be 7,541,221,651. The world has experienced a population increase of 96,777,770, or 1.3 percent, from New Year’s Day 2018 (population 7,444,443,881). During January 2019, 4.8 births and 1.9 deaths are expected worldwide every second.

Patterns of Population Change by State, 2010-2018
The following graphic shows patterns of percent population change from 2010 to 2018. Use the associated GIS project to examine different years or subject matter items. Click graphic for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

How the U.S. Population is Changing
The following graphic shows how the population of the U.S. has changed from 2010 to 2018 and how the population might change 2019 through 2020. Click graphic for larger view; opens in new page. The population is as of July 1 for each year. The components of change (birth, deaths and migration) are for the period July 1 through June 30 for that year.

Population for each year is computed by the population identity equation:
  P[t]=P[t-1] + B[t,t-1] -D[t,t-1] + M[t,t-1]
Viewing the larger image, see how each of the components of change are impacting the total population and population change.
… see more detail about these data for the U.S. and by state at http://proximityone.com/states2018.htm.

More About Population Trends, Patterns and Characteristics
See more about how population dynamics; use the interactive tables in these sections:
  • School Districts — http://proximityone.com/sdtrends.htm
  • Cities — http://proximityone.com/places2017.htm
  • Counties — http://proximityone.com/countytrends2017.htm
  • Metros — http://proximityone.com/metros.htm
  • States — http://proximityone.com/states2018.htm

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

2018 U.S. & World Population

.. Welcome to 2018 .. how the U.S. and world are changing …

This section has been updated with January 2019 data.
– see updated blog post
– see related new web page with interactive table.
Click follow button at upper right to receive updates.

The Census Bureau estimates the U.S. population is 326,971,407 as of January 1, 2018. This represents an increase of 2,314,238, or 0.71 percent, from New Year’s Day 2017. Since Census Day (April 1) 2010, the population has grown by 18,225,587, or 5.90 percent.

In January 2018, the U.S. is expected to experience one birth every 8 seconds and one death every 10 seconds. Meanwhile, net international migration is expected to add one person to the U.S. population every 29 seconds. The combination of births, deaths and net international migration will increase the U.S. population by one person every 18 seconds.

The world population on January 1, 2018 is estimated to be 7,444,443,881. The world has experienced a population increase of 78,521,283, or 1.07 percent, from New Year’s Day 2017. During January 2018, 4.3 births and 1.8 deaths are expected worldwide every second.

Patterns of Population Change by State, 2010-2017
The following graphic shows patterns of percent population change from 2010 to 2017. Use the associated GIS project to examine different years or subject matter items. Click graphic for larger view; expand browser window for best quality view.

.. view developed with ProximityOne CV XE GIS and related GIS project.

How the U.S. Population is Changing
The following graphic shows how the population of the U.S. has changed from 2010 to 2017 and how the population might change 2018 through 2020. Click graphic for large view. The population is as of July 1 for each year. The components of change (birth, deaths and migration) are for the period July 1 through June 30 for that year.

Population for each year is computed by the population identity equation:
  P[t]=P[t-1] + B[t,t-1] -D[t,t-1] + M[t,t-1]
Viewing the larger image, see how each of the components of change are impacting the total population and population change.
… see more detail about these data for the U.S. and by state at http://proximityone.com/states2017.htm.

More About Population Trends, Patterns and Characteristics
See more about how population dynamics; use the interactive tables in these sections:
  • School Districts — http://proximityone.com/sdtrends.htm
  • Cities — http://proximityone.com/places2016.htm
  • Counties — http://proximityone.com/countytrends2016.htm
  • Metros — http://proximityone.com/metrotrends2016.htm
  • States — http://proximityone.com/states2017.htm

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

State Population & Components of Change: 2010-2016

.. data and tools to examine how state demographics are changing 2010-2016 … using the new 2016 population and components of changes estimates. The U.S. population changed from 308,758,105 (2010) to 323,127,513 (2016), a change of 14,369,408 (4.7%). Only three states lost population. See the growth rates for DC and the remaining states in this table. Highest growth rates were in D.C., North Dakota, Texas, Utah and Colorado.

Patterns of Population Change, 2010-2016, by State
The following graphic shows the percent population change by state with labels showing the rank among all states based on the percent change in population, 2010-16.

View created with CVGIS and related GIS project. Click graphic for larger view.

Resources to Analyze these Data
Use our tools to view and analyze annual population estimates, 2010 to 2016, rankings and components of change for the U.S., regions and states. Use the interactive table below in this section to view, rank, compare these data. Use the GIS tools and ready-to use project described below in this section to create maps for states and regions of interest. Create thematic maps for any of the fields/measures shown in the interactive table. Change color patterns and labels. Integrate your own data.

Using Interactive Table
Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare, query states based on a selection of demographic measures. The following graphic illustrates how the table can be used. Click graphic for larger view.

The graphic shows the largest 10 states ranked in descending order based on 2016 population. The column “PopChg Rank 10b16” (second from right) shows the rank of this state, among all states, based on the population change from 2010 to 2016. The rightmost column shows the state’s rank for the period based on percent change in population over the period.

Largest 10 States based on 2016 Population

Try it yourself. Use the table to examine state patterns and characteristics based on your selected criteria.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Regional Economic Information System: Annual Updates

.. which counties are experiencing the fastest economic growth? by what economic component? what does this look like on a per capita level?

.. access & analyze economic characteristics and patterns by county and state .. annual time series 1969 through 2015 with projections.  Personal income is the income available to persons for consumption expenditures, taxes, interest payments, transfer payments to governments and the rest of the world, or for saving. Use the interactive table to examine characteristics of counties and regions of interest. The table provides access to 31 personal income related summary measures. These data are a selection of a broader set of annual time series data from the Regional Economic Information System (REIS). REIS is a part of the ProximityOne State & Regional Income & Product Accounts (SRIPA) and Situation & Outlook (S&O) featuring current (2016) estimates and demographic-economic projections. Go to table.

Visual Analysis of Per Capita Personal Income Patterns
The following map shows the Houston metro (view profile) with bold brown boundary. Counties are labeled with county name and 2014 per capita personal income.

Click graphic for larger view. View developed with CV XE GIS software.

Per Capita Personal Income Change 2008-2014 by County
.. relative to U.S 2008-2014 change

Click graphic for larger view. View developed with CV XE GIS software.

Interactive Analysis – County or State Profiles
The following graphic illustrate use of the interactive table to view an economic profile for Harris County, TX. Use the table to examine characteristics of any county or state. Click graphic for larger view.

Interactive Analysis
– comparing per capita personal income across counties
The next graphics illustrates use of the interactive table to rank/compare per capita personal income across counties. Rank/compare states. Choose any of the economic profile items. Click graphic for larger view.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.

Real Purchasing Power by State & Metro

.. how does the real purchasing power in metros of interest compare to other metros? Use data and tools reviewed here to examine the purchasing power of the incomes in different metros and states … this section provides access to regional price parities (RPPs) estimates developed compare regions within the U.S. RPPs are regional price levels expressed as a percentage of the overall national price level for a given year. The price level is determined by the average prices paid by consumers for the mix of goods and services consumed in each region. See about these data. See example about using RPPs below in this section.

• Use the interactive table to view, rank, compare the RPPs
.. for all states and metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs).
• Use GIS tools described here to develop RPP thematic pattern maps.
.. add your own data & geography, select different HPI measures or criteria.
.. zoom to different geographic extents, label and modify colors as desired.

Patterns of Regional Price Parities by Metro: 2014
The following graphic shows patterns of 2014 all items Regional Price Parities by metro (MSAs). The color patterns/intervals are shown in the inset legend. In additional views (below this graphic) metros are labeled with the 2014 all items RPP. Click graphic for larger view. Expand browser to full window for best quality view. Use the GIS tools described here to develop thematic pattern maps for a range of data and criteria.

.. view developed using the CV XE GIS software.
.. click map for larger view and details.

Additional Views — install GIS project (see steps here) and create your own custom maps
Georgia & Region
Missouri & Region
Texas & Region

Using the RPP — Illustrative Examples
1. Comparing real purchasing power:
  — Houston, TX metro compared to Waco, TX metro.
The the all items RPP for the Houston metro in 2014 was 100.3 while the all items RPP for the Waco, TX metro in 2014 was 91.5. (from RPP table). On average, prices are 0.3 percent higher and 8.5 percent lower than the U.S. average for the Houston metro and the Waco metro, respectively. The per capita personal income (PCPI) for the Houston metro in 2014 was $54,820 and the per capita personal income for the Waco metro was $35,340 (get from the table at http://proximityone.com/reis.htm). The RPP-adjusted PCPI values are $53,223 ($54,820/1.03) and $38,622 ($35,340/0.915), respectively. The gap between the purchasing power of the two metro PCPIs is reduced when adjusted by their respective RPPs.

2. Comparing real purchasing power:
  — Washington, DC metro compared to Columbia, MO metro.
• Washington, DC metro 2014 all items RPP: is 119.4 (from RPP table); 2014 PCPI: $62,975 (from this table)
• Columbia, MO metro 2014 all items RPP: 93.0 (from RPP table); 2014 PCPI: $41,418 (from this table)
• The RPP-adjusted PCPI values are $52,742 ($62,975/1.194) and $44,535 ($41,418/0.93), respectively.

Using the RPP Interactive Table
Use the interactive table to examine the RPP by state and metro. The following graphic illustrates use of the table to show the 10 metros having the highest 2014 all items RPP. Click graphic for larger view. Examine metros and states of interest with more detail using tools below the table.

Join me in a Data Analytics Lab session to discuss more details about accessing and using wide-ranging demographic-economic data and data analytics. Learn more about using these data for areas and applications of interest.

About the Author
— Warren Glimpse is former senior Census Bureau statistician responsible for innovative data access and use operations. He is also the former associate director of the U.S. Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards for data access and use. He has more than 20 years of experience in the private sector developing data resources and tools for integration and analysis of geographic, demographic, economic and business data. Contact Warren. Join Warren on LinkedIn.